A Cross-Sectional Study of Immunization Coverage in Children in Urban Slums of Western Maharashtra
Background: Children in urban slums suffer accentuated vulnerability to illnesses, as outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases are more common in urban slums. Though the immunization coverage has been steadily increasing, the average level remains far less, which is 62% (NFHS4) than the desired coverage (90%).
Objectives: 1) To estimate Immunization coverage in children aged between 12–23 months living in Urban Slum area 2) To study sociodemographic factors influencing immunization coverage & reasons behind missed vaccination.
Material and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2018. A sample of 210 children aged 12–23 months was selected using WHO 30 cluster sampling technique from urban slum areas. Data were collected by parent interviews using the pretested questionnaire and checking immunization card.
Results: Out of a total of 210 children studied, 106 were boys, and 104 were girls. BCG, OPV1/Penta1, OPV3/Penta3 and Measles1 immunization was received by 207 (98.6%), 203 (96.7%), 181 (86.2%) and 154 (73.3%) children respectively. Socio-demographic factors like Religion, Birthplace, socio-economic status, mother’s education, Mother’s Occupation were found significantly associated with full immunization coverage. Common reasons for missed immunization were sick child (35%) and unawareness of missed doses (23%).
Conclusion: In urban slum area coverage of full immunization was found only 66.2%, which is though above the national coverage (62%) but still far lower than the expected coverage under Mission Indradhanush (90%). This demands vigorous efforts to improve immunization through IEC, Community Participation and Inter-sectoral coordination.
Copyright (c) 2020 Kuldeep K. Mitkari
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