Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences <p>Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences [APJHS] is an international journal published quarterly. Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, an official publication of Academy of Indian Health Professionals. It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to communicate high quality original research work, reviews, short communications, case report, Ethics Forum, Education Forum and Letter to editor that contribute significantly to further the scientific knowledge related to the field of health sciences. Articles with timely interest and newer research concepts will be given more preference.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences applies the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY)</a>&nbsp;license to published articles. Under this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, but they allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy the content as long as the original authors and source are cited. Appropriate attribution can be provided by simply citing the original article.</p> (Dr. J. K. Mukkadan) (Priyanka) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 06:05:00 +0000 OJS 60 Phytochemical, Antioxidant, Proximate, and Selected Mineral Status of Egyptian Citrus paradisi Fruit obtained from Wamakko Local Government Area of Sokoto State, North-western Nigeria <p>The search for new antioxidant compounds and minerals to combat the nutritional needs of the populace of Nigeria is on the increase. This study investigates the phytochemical composition, antioxidant, proximate, and mineral status of Egyptian Citrus paradise: A popular citrus fruit consumed in Wamakko Local Government Area of Sokoto State using standard procedures. The result revealed that the presence of important phytoconstituents, namely, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenolics, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars with alkaloid was reported to be absent. The juice concentrates exhibit an appreciable but significantly lower (P &lt; 0.05) 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazylradical free screening activity compared to the reference antioxidant. The result of the vitamin, proximate, and mineral analysis confirms the concentrate to be a rich source of Vitamin C, minerals such as sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, as well as a moderately to poor source of carbohydrate, lipid, protein, fiber, and potassium. These findings will greatly help nutritionist in properly making nutrition recommendations to meet the nutritional priorities of the populace.</p> BandiIkilima Ibrahim, Ogbiko Cyril Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Community-based Lifestyle Education Program Addressing Non-communicable Diseases in Low-literacy Areas of the South Pacific: A Pilot Control Cohort Study <p>Lifestyle interventions can effectively reduce chronic disease risk factors. This study examined the effectiveness of an established lifestyle intervention contextualized for low-literacy communities in Fiji. Ninety-six adults from four villages, with waist circumference (WC) indicative of risk of chronic disease, were randomly selected to an intervention or control group. Process evaluation indicated one intervention and one control village fulfilled the study protocol. There were no differences between intervention and control for body mass index BMI (P = 0.696), WC (P = 0.662), total cholesterol (TC) (P = 0.386), and TC:high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (P = 0.485). The intervention village achieved greater reductions than the control village at 30 and 90 days for systolic blood pressure (30 days: −11.1% vs. −2.5%, P = 0.006; 90 days: −14.5% vs. −6.7%, P = 0.019); pulse rate (30 days: −7.0% vs. −1.1%, P = 0.866; 90 days: −7.1% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.027), and HDL (30 days: −13.9% vs. 1.7%, P = 0.206; 90 days: −18.9% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.001); at 90 days only for diastolic blood pressure (−14.4% vs. −0.2%, P = 0.010); at 30 days only for low-density lipoprotein (−11.6% vs. 8.0%, P = 0.009); and fasting plasma glucose (−10.2% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.032). However, for triglycerides, the control achieved greater reductions than the intervention village at 30 days (35.4% vs. −12.3%, P = 0.008; marginal at 90 days 16.4% vs. −23.5%, P = 0.054). This study provides preliminary evidence of the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the intervention to lower several risk factors for chronic disease over 30 days in rural settings in Fiji and supports consideration of larger studies.</p> Lillian Kent, Pia Reierson, Darren Morton, Kesa Vasutoga, Paul Rankin Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro Phytochemical Screening and Anti-snake Venom Activity of the Methanol Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts of Leptadenia hastata (Asclepiadaceae) against Naja nigricollis <p>Snake envenomation is a major cause of death and morbidity in many developing countries. Leptadenia hastata (Pers.) Decne (Asclepiadaceae) has been reportedly used in traditional medicine as an antivenom, antiulcer, antidiabetic, analgesic, cardiovascular disorders, bacterial and viral infections. This research design is to investigate the phytochemical analysis and phospholipase A2 enzyme inhibition potential of L. hastata leaf and stem bark extracts using standard procedures. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of key constituents such as carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenes, steroids, saponins, and diterpenes. The methanol leaf and stem extracts were able to inhibit the hydrolytic action of phospholipase A2 enzyme in a concentration-dependent manner. The research findings lay credence to the folkloric claim of the leaf and stem of L. hastata as an anti-snake venom.</p> L. G. Hassan, A. J. Yusuf, N. Muhammad, Cyril Ogbiko, M. D. Mustapha Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A rare case of masseter muscle cysticercosis in a young female patient managed conservatively <p>Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium larvae infestation. Isolated oral cysticercosis is a very rare presentation of this disease. Here is a case of masseter cysticercosis in a young woman who presented with painful cheek swelling. Diagnosis is confirmed with history, clinical examination and MRI. &nbsp;Luckily patient got cured with conservative management. &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hardik Dodia, Karnadev Solanki, Bhaumik Shah Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 04:07:08 +0000 Effects of Radiotherapy on Ehrlich’s Ascetic Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice: An Experimental Study <p>Background: Experimental tumors have great importance in modeling, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) is one of the most common tumors. EAC is referred to as an undifferentiated carcinoma and is originally hyperdiploid, has high transplantable capability, no-regression, rapid proliferation, shorter life span, 100% malignancy, and also does not have tumor-specific transplantation antigen. The current concepts that radiotherapy alone or with cancer chemotherapy is administered at a dose to the maximum a patient can tolerate before the onset of severe and even life-threatening toxicity is still in wide clinical use. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of radiotherapy in the treatment of EAC. Materials and Methods: A mouse bearing the tumor strain was taken from our laboratory in the Department of Pathology, IPGMER, Kolkata, where the strain was being maintained serially by inoculation of malignant cells into healthy mice every 8–10 days. In our work, altogether 25 mice were taken for each set of experimental work. They were divided in four groups of 5–10 mice in each group. The various parameters to assess the response of various therapeutic schedules were regression of tumor by decrease in body weight of mice and decrease in abdominal girth; cell count of ascetic fluid and morphological changes of tumor cells after treatment with drugs and to study the percentage viability of the cells. Results: All the mice in Group I gained weight steadily. Mice of Group II were unaffected by single dose whole body radiation and they behaved as mice of Group I. All mice of Group III died within 20–25 days. Conclusion: Cell changes were observed but not as marked. Cell viability was as high as 65% after treatment as compared to tumor control which showed a viability of about 75%.</p> Utpal Goswami, Amit Kumar Verma, Narshima Rao Banoth, Anupam Brahma, Sayandev Dasgupta, Saroj Krishna Bhattacharyya Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Investigation using Spectrophotometric Assay of the Polar Leaf Extracts of Ficus capensis (Moraceae) <p>This study was designed to explore new antibacterial agent(s) from the defatted methanol and water extracts of Ficus capensis. The extracts were obtained using various solvents, namely, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, methanol, and water by serial exhaustive extraction, after which both extracts were challenged with pure clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Burkolderia cepacia viz-a-viz standard antibiotics of chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and amoxicillin at 25 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml concentrations using spectrophotometric method. Using the zone of inhibition as an inhibitory parameter, both extracts of F. capensis showed promising antimicrobial activity in a concentration-dependent manner comparable to the standard antibiotics for all tested microorganisms. This research holds promise for the exploration of various potentially active secondary metabolites which would help in developing pharmaceuticals, especially antibacterial drugs, for combating common microbial infections. This validates the use of the plant leaves in the treatment of broad-spectrum microbial infections in ethnomedicine.</p> Achimugu Dickson Musa, Sandra Tombiah Dorgu, Cyril Ogbiko, Jeremiah Ikko, Muhammad Hausa Shuaib, Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo, Philipp Krastel Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Activity, Characterizations, and Biological Synthesis of Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles using the Extract of Aloe vera <p>Green nanotechnology is relatively new branch of science and technology with many interesting applications. This technology involves in the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) through green synthesis using extracts of plant-derived materials. Green synthesis of metal and metal oxide NPs is a good alternative over the other conventional physical and chemical methods. This study deals with the green synthesis of manganese oxide (MnO2) NPs using the extract of Aloe vera. The green synthesized MnO2 NPs have been synthesized using various analytical methods such as Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and field emission scanning electron microscope. MnO2 NPs were tested for antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus using well diffusion method. The experimental results were indicating that the MnO2 NPs are good antibacterial agents against different bacterial species.</p> Naveen Chandra Joshi, Faisal Siddiqui, Mohd Salman, Ajay Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Tooth Regeneration: Turning Hopes into Realities <p>Functional tooth regeneration has shown promising therapeutic strategy. Tooth regeneration is possible by combine use of adult stem cells, growth factors, and scaffold. In recent years, researchers have explored tooth regeneration. Significant effort has been made in recent decades to identify and characterize tooth stem cells and to unravel the developmental programs which these cells follow to generate a tooth.</p> Kriti Garg, Silky Mehta, C. V. Sruthi Vyaasini, Bhavika Sindhu, Sheenam Kansal, Roopali Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Stroke admissions in the medical wards of a teaching hospital in south east nigeria: A 10 -year review <p>Stroke, the third leading cause of death worldwide, contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of medical admissions. There is a paucity of literature on stroke outcomes in the Southeast region of Nigeria. This study, therefore, is aimed at bridging this gap in knowledge.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; .This was a 10-year retrospective descriptive study in which data about patients with a clinical diagnosis of stroke were extracted from the Admission/Discharge registers in the medical wards of ABSUTH, Aba. Relevant data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 software. A total of 6587 admissions were recorded within the study period; 830 (12.6%) were admitted because of stroke, made up of 382 (46%) males and 448 (54%) females. Stroke was the commonest cause of death among the medical in-patients within the period under review and of all the stroke admissions, mortality was high at 42.3% with majority of the deaths (91.5%) occurring within the first two weeks of hospitalization. Stroke contributed significantly to medical admissions in the city of Aba, Nigeria. Mortality from stroke was high and that occurred mainly within the acute phase of the illness. There is, therefore, a need for dedicated stroke units to be set up in centres where stroke admissions are this high where the stroke in-patients will be afforded specialized multidisciplinary care instead of the present situation of medical ward admissions.</p> <p>Keywords: medical wards; stroke admissions; treatment outcome; southeast Nigeria</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Marcellinus Nkpozi, Rowland Nwanke, Ejiofor Ugwu Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 04:54:53 +0000 Microbiological and Biochemical Analysis of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients Admitted in RIMS, Ranchi <p>Background: Since methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains are resistant to multiple antibiotics, there is a possibility of extensive outbreaks which may be difficult to control. Early detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus is important from patients and hospitals point of view. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains were obtained from admitted patients of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi. The sources of isolate included pus from infected surgical wounds, infected burn wounds, conjunctival swab, aural swab, throat swab, vaginal swab, and urine for microbiological and biochemical analysis of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Results: All the 264 cases of staphylococcal species isolated from different clinical specimens were subjected to coagulase test. It was observed that out of 264 strains of staphylococci isolated from different sites, 165 strains (62.5%) were coagulase positive and 99 strains (37.5%) were coagulase negative by tube method. Out of the 165 strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci, maximum isolation was obtained from pus 74 followed by throat swab 55, aural swab 21, vaginal 4, conjunctival swab 9, and urine 2. All the 165 cases of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus isolated from different clinical specimens were studied for hemolysis, mannitol fermentation, pigment production, and phosphatase production. Out of these 165 strains, 162 (98%) strains produced β-hemolysis on blood agar medium. Pigment production was noted in 160 (97%) of cases. Majority of strains produced characteristic golden yellow pigment on nutrient agar plate. A total of 155 (94%) strains of staphylococci fermented mannitol with the production of acid only. Phosphatase production was observed in 157 (95%) strains of pathogenic staphylococci. Conclusion: Considering the above-mentioned pathogenicity test, it was observed that coagulase test was the single most reliable test, though coagulase-negative staphylococci are sometimes pathogenic too.</p> Manju Boipai, Krishna Chander Birua, N. P. Sahu, L. B. Pandey, Rameswari Beck, Shashi Dinkar Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Intestinal sepsis model of small animals <p>Objective: The goal of this paper was to develop a model of intestinal sepsis in the investigational animal.</p> <p>Material and methods. Sprague-Dawley male rats of 4 weeks (N = 42) were used. Initially, a pilot study (N = 12) was performed and distributed in groups with .8 cc inoculum of Escherichia coli ATCC intraperitoneally administered at concentrations of 9, 7, 6. Subsequently, concentrations of 9 CFU are used in two groups of rats with reductions of 11 cc. &nbsp;Finally, a randomized trial of 28 rats was initiated in three treatment groups after intraperitoneal infection. Biological models of blood and peritoneal fluid were observed, and histopathological study of intraperitoneal tissues was done.</p> <p>Results. Demise of 95% of the rats infected with E. coli UFC concentration was observed. The blood culture and peritoneal fluid culture was positive for the same strain in all of them. The formation of blisters on the liver surface and polymorphonuclear infiltration in organs were detected.</p> <p>Conclusion. The fatal dose of E. coli should be diluted for intraperitoneal injection.</p> Ramesh Reddy, Suman Rao Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 05:30:38 +0000 Saliva as the Stress Biomarker after Fasting Exposure on Adult Girls and Boys <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #222222; background: white;">This experiment was conducted to determine the fasting effects on anthropometric parameters and salivary antioxidant properties in girls and boys. Saliva samples were collected from eighteen healthy girls (control-09 &amp; fasting-09 girls) and twelve healthy boys (control-06 &amp; fasting-06 boys). Saliva was collected four times from all the subjects at a time interval of two hours. For anthropometric parameters, body weight, body temperature, pulse rate (PR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was measured during each saliva collection time. Antioxidant parameters of all the saliva samples were evaluated. Most of the anthropometric parameters like temperature, PR, SBP, and DBP of the fasting group was significantly&nbsp;<em>(p&lt;0.5)</em>&nbsp;decreases than the control group of both boy's and girl's in the different time interval. Antioxidant properties were significantly <em>(p&lt;0.5)</em> higher in the fasting group of girls, but the insignificantly different level was found in the boy's group. This study was indicating that fasting affected the anthropometric parameters (PR, SBP, and DBP), mainly in the girls. Salivary antioxidant properties were mostly lower in the girls' fasting group. Therefore, saliva may be a useful stress biomarker during fasting conditions.</span></p> Arpana Devi, Kriti Sharma, Arup Giri Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 05:34:34 +0000 Estimation of Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in Gingival Epithelium of Epileptic Patients <p><strong><u>Abstract </u></strong></p> <p><strong><u>&nbsp;</u></strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Gingival overgrowth is one of several oral side effects of phenytoin, a potent antiepileptic drug.&nbsp; Several mechanisms have been elucidated to understand the pathogenesis of drug induced gingival overgrowth. The frequency of gingival overgrowth associated with chronic phenytoin therapy remains controversial. and the possible subclinical effects of this drug on the gingival epithelium should be investigated histopathologically and immunohistochemically.</p> <p><strong>Purpose of the study</strong>: To investigate the Bcl-2 for apoptosis rate and Ki-67 for the epithelial proliferative activity in epileptic patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: Twenty four samples of gingival tissue from epileptic patients treated with phenytoin and in eight samples of gingival tissue from healthy patients who didn’t use phenytoin (control) were evaluated for Bcl-2 and Ki-67 immunohistochemically.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results revealed moreproliferative activity of the overlying epithelium and an increased pattern of Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in phenytoin users compared to controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results concluded that the increased epithelial thickness observed in phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth is associated with increased apoptotic rate and mitotic activity , especially in the oral epithelium.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Gingival overgrowth, Bcl-2, Ki-67, Phenytoin.</p> Mohamed Helmy Salama, Abdelraheem R. Algendy, Saleem Shaikh Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 05:38:26 +0000 Cardiovascular Diseases in Context: Multilevel Analysis of Risk Factors in India (2004–2014) <p>Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), accounting for approximately half of all deaths owing to non-communicable diseases worldwide, have become a major public health concern. The CVD risk is high among the Indian population, as well as varies by geography. The purpose of the current study was to test the independent effects of contextual socio-economic variables, whilst adjusting for individual socio-economic variables on CVD risk factors in India. Data from the 52<sup>nd</sup>, 60<sup>th</sup>, and 71<sup>st </sup>NSSO rounds pertaining to Social Consumption related to Health have been utilized for the current study. A four-level multilevel model has been fitted to examine the measured individual, household, community, and district factors on the prevalence of CVDs.District educational attainment, household expenditure quintile, and proportion of district urbanicity have emerged as important factors with few contra-indications in terms of traditional directions of association, as opposed to extant literature. Religious and ethnic composition of the communities and districts have also been found to have an impact. In order to better manage the CVD health of the nation, there is a strong need to focus on community-level and district-level interventions, in addition to individual-level factors. Future research should investigate these factors to account for unexplained variations in CVD management.</p> Ayantika Biswas, Shri Kant Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 05:44:25 +0000 Study the Neurological Improvement after Surgical Management of Traumatic Paraplegia in Traumatic Thoracolumbar Fractures <p>Background: Traumatic paraplegia is an unanticipated catastrophe in an individual’s life, posing a huge economic as well as social burden. We evaluated all the patients for neurological improvement after surgical management of traumatic paraplegia in traumatic thoracolumbar fractures. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was conducted in the department of orthopedics of a tertiary care teaching institute in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. The patients were evaluated by X-ray of spine (anteroposterior and lateral view) and sometimes computed tomography scan. In most cases, pedicle screw with plate or rod was used and posterior stabilization and posterior fusion with corticocancellous bone graft from posterior iliac crest were done. Pre-operative and post-operative neurological charts (according to Frankel’s grade and American Spinal Cord Injury Association score [motor and sensory]) were maintained with regular assessment for proper post- operative neurological recovery assessment. Results: Forty-six patients in whom posterior stabilization of the spine was done in this institution and followed up for a period ranging from 6 months to 2 years, 4 of 46 patients lost follow-up. Remaining 42 patients were considered for the study. When decompression done within the 1st week in incomplete paraplegia, 80% of the patients show Grade 3 power return, whereas 25% of the patients show return of Grade 3 power when decompression done in the 3rd week in incomplete paraplegia cases. In complete paraplegia cases, 11% of the patients had return of power up to Grade 3 when decompression done within the 1 week, where no cases showed return of Grade 3 power when decompression done after the 2nd or 3rd week. In incomplete paraplegia, 80% of the patients had onset of sensory recovery within 1 week, when the decompression done within the 1st week. In complete paraplegia, 11% of the patients had sensory recovery within 2 weeks when decompression done within 1 week. Conclusion: Hence, our conclusion is that early decompression definitely has some role regarding motor and sensory function return, both in complete and incomplete paraplegia.</p> Subarna Misra, Subhankar Mukherjee, Upal Banerjee, Abhishek Chattopadhyay, Anindya Sasmal, Shashi Dinkar Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000