Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences 2022-05-24T10:45:56+00:00 Dr. J. K. Mukkadan Open Journal Systems <p>Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences [APJHS] is an international journal published quarterly. It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to communicate high quality original research work, reviews, short communications, case report, Ethics Forum, Education Forum and Letter to editor that contribute significantly to further the scientific knowledge related to the field of health sciences. Articles with timely interest and newer research concepts will be given more preference.</p> <p>All articles published in this journal represent the opinion of the authors and not reflect the official policy of the Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences [APJHS]. 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Legends of Medicine &amp; Health sciences associated with APJHS team.</li> <li class="show">APJHS Team comprises Editorial board members from different parts of globe.</li> <li class="show">Cross Ref and DOI Citation.</li> <li class="show">Entire Issue/Journal can be downloaded free from the website.</li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> COVID-19-How Confinment Affects the Dietary Habits, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle of Work from Home Population in the State of Gujarat 2022-03-21T04:41:12+00:00 Aayushi Solanki Nishita Baxi Arpi Shah Trilok Akhani <p>The COVID-19 pandemic in India is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. India, which has the second-highest population in the world, is suffering from COVID-19 disease. By May18th the country India investigated ~1 lakh (0.1 million) infected cases from COVID-19, and as of 11th July, the cases equalled 8 lakhs. Social distancing and lockdown rules were employed in India due to COVID-19 influenced food habits and lifestyles with potential negative health impact on Indian population. The current research is an attempt to explore physical health; dietary habits; lifestyle changes in working population in state of Gujarat during the lockdown. Approximately, 200 participants from the state of Gujarat were included in the study. They were asked to complete a questionnaire with questions around changes in body weight, junk food consumption or healthy food consumption, physical activities, lifestyle changes before and after the pandemic, sleep quality, screening time, etc.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aayushi Solanki, Nishita Baxi, Arpi Shah, Trilok Akhani Phytochemical Characterization and in vitro Antioxidant, in vitro Antidiabetic Activity of Manilkara hexandra Seed Extract 2022-03-21T07:49:49+00:00 Banani Mondal Sara Farheen Mainak Mal Nilanjan Sarkar Amrita Kumari Mainak Chakraborty <p>Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard is a large evergreen tree species widely distributed throughout India and other countries and belongs to family Sapotaceae. Conventionally, the entire plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases. The present study has been carried out for identification of its bioactive constituents by high resolution-liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HR-LC-QTOF-MS) and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and in vitro antidiabetic activity of the methanolic extract of the seeds of the plant. Twenty-eight bioactive compounds from the methanolic extract of Manilkara hexandra seeds (MEMH) were identified using HR-LC-QTOF-MS. In vitro antioxidant activity of MEMH was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, nitric oxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays and the IC50 values for MEMH were found to be similar to standard drug. In vitro antidiabetic activity was also evaluated using anti α-amylase and anti-α-glucosidase assays and the IC50 values for MEMH were found to be good as compare to standard drugs. The compounds identified by HR-LC-MS partly explain the various therapeutic effects of the seeds of the plant. Thus, it can be concluded that MEMH is rich in bioactive phytochemicals and possesses potential antidiabetic and antioxidant activity.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Banani Mondal, Sara Farheen, Mainak Mal, Nilanjan Sarkar, Amrita Kumari, Mainak Chakraborty An Overview of the Health Benefits of Drumstick Pods 2022-03-21T07:54:40+00:00 Labdhi Shah Nishita Baxi Arpi Shah Trilok Kumar Akhani <p>The “Moringa” (MO) (drumstick) is native to India and grows in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Due to its high nutritional value, each part of the tree is suitable for nutritional or commercial use. The seed of Moringa oleifera is a natural coagulant, widely used in water treatment. The scientific results of this research provide information on the use of M. oleifera as a treatment for diabetes and cancer and the strengthening of M. oleifera pods, leaves, and flowers in commercial products. This review explores the interdisciplinary medicinal value of MO and discusses the cultivation, nutrition, and commercial and exceptional pharmacological properties of this “miracle tree”. MO is nature’s first aid kit, widely used in the Indian Ayurvedic medical system, as a nutrient, natural energy stimulant and to increase defense against disease. It is a multi-purpose vegetable sources of trees, spices, cooking oils, and cosmetic oils and as medicinal plants.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Labdhi Shah, Nishita Baxi, Arpi Shah, Trilok Kumar Akhani Epidemiology of Endometriosis in Tamil Nadu, India 2022-03-21T08:24:40+00:00 T. Ramani Devi B. Kadalmani C. Anchana Devi <p>Endometriosis is an enigmatic disease of women of the reproductive age group. Pain and infertility are the main symptoms. This paper attempts to study the incidence of endometriosis among infertility patients undergoing laparoscopy. Following parameters such as age, SE status, body mass index (BMI), type of infertility, parity, symptoms, family history, menstrual history, medical history, ultrasound (USG) findings, stages of endometriosis, associated findings, and laparoscopy findings were analyzed. Incidence of endometriosis was higher between 26 and 35 years and at all ages stage 3 and stage 4 endometriosis were higher than stage 1 and stage 2. Endometriosis is more common in higher socio-economic class and in women with lower BMI and primary infertility. Among all the symptoms of endometriosis, dysmenorrhea is the most common and most important pointer towards the diagnosis of endometriosis. There is also higher incidence of family history among endometriosis patients. Menstrual cycles are invariably regular. Diagnosis of endometriosis is mainly through USG and rarely magnetic resonance imaging is performed to confirm the presence of endometriosis. In early stages of endometriosis, USG may not show any positive findings. USG can pick up endometriomas, deep infiltrative endometriosis, adenomyosis, and associated findings such as polycystic ovary syndrome, fibroids, and Mullerian anomalies. Laparoscopy is the gold standard in the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis. Staging is done based on laparoscopy and simultaneously treatment is also carried out. Stage 1 and 2 patients underwent cauterization of the lesions. Advanced stages of endometriosis underwent cystectomy, adhesiolysis, and excision of the deep lesions and ultimately the pelvic anatomy is regained. Women were planned for further fertility treatment based on the staging of the disease.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 T. Ramani Devi, B. Kadalmani, C. Anchana Devi Examination of the Changes on Selected Performance Parameters in Response to Circuit Training among Kabaddi Players 2022-03-21T08:28:50+00:00 M. Karuppaiah M. Suresh Kumar <p>The purpose of the study was to examine the changes on selected performance parameters in response to circuit training among college kabaddi players. It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences on selected performance variables due to the effect of circuit training among college kabaddi players. For the present study, the 30 male college kabaddi players from Affiliated Colleges of Bharathidasan University in Tiruchirappalli jurisdiction, Tamil Nadu, were selected at random and their age ranged from 18 to 25 years. For the present study, pretest-posttest random group design which consists of control group and experimental group was used. Performance variables were assessed by subjective rating. The subjects were randomly assigned to two equal groups of 15 each and named as Group “A” and Group “B.” Group “A” underwent circuit training and Group “B” has not undergone any training. The data were collected before and after 12 weeks of training. The data were analyzed by applying dependent “t”-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The circuit training had positive impact on knee hold and kicking among college kabaddi players.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 M. Karuppaiah, M. Suresh Kumar Quality of Life among Senior Adults across Gender Residing in Lucknow City 2022-03-21T08:33:23+00:00 Preeti Maurya Shalini Agarwal Khwairakpam Sharmila <p>Background: The quality of life among senior adults is an important area of concern which reflects the health status and well-being this vulnerable group. Objectives: The aim of the present investigation was to study the quality of life among senior adults. Methods: The study was conducted on a purposive random sampling of 120 respondents who were selected from Lucknow city in the age ranging from 65 to more than 75 years of which 67 men and 53 women. (OPQOL-35) “Older People’s Quality of Life” questionnaire which is prepared by A Bowling was used to measure the quality of life, the questionnaire was administered. The data were coded, tabulated, and analyzed. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyzed using mean, frequency percentage, F test, and χ2 test using SPSS (version 20.0). Results: The finding of the study revealed that majority of respondents has good and alright quality of life. The result also revealed that there was no significant difference between quality of life of respondents across gender.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Preeti Maurya, Shalini Agarwal, Khwairakpam Sharmila Screening for Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Patients with Cough Attending Different Block Public Health Centre of North Bank of Kamrup District of Assam, India: Does Location, Gender and Duration of Cough Impact on Screening? 2022-03-21T08:39:37+00:00 Bipul Chandra Deka Devabrata Saikia Manash Pratim Kashyap Jayanta Biswa Sarma Nayan jyoti Kakati <p>India has 2.64 million tuberculosis (TB) cases, and this number is almost 30% of the worldwide TB burden. The aim of the study was to find out whether there is a relationship between the prevalence of TB cases with respect to gender, duration of cough and location. In this study, sputum samples were collected from the patients who reported cough in outdoor patient departments. All sputum samples were examined microscopically. Age, gender, and location-wise data were prepared for study. During the study period, total 37119 presumptive patients were attended outpatient department and 1103 (2.97%) presumptive patients reported cough. Out of 1103 presumptive cases, 5.98% were found to be sputum positive. The occurrence was highest among male patients (73.1%). The age group 16–30 years was found to be the most vulnerable one. Duration of cough was not found to be a significant factor for sputum positive pulmonary TB. However, there was a locality-wise difference in detection (P &lt; 0.05). The findings suggested that cough reported for any duration should be brought under TB screening. Although the data showed that the occurrence of TB was maximum in male patients, female TB patients should also be brought under thorough investigation. In locations showing significant TB cases, targeted interventions should be initiated by government and non-government agencies to detect the root cause.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Bipul Chandra Deka, Devabrata Saikia, Manash Pratim Kashyap, Jayanta Biswa Sarma, Nayan jyoti Kakati Source of Menstrual Knowledge, Reaction, and Restriction during Menstruation in Chinnalapatti, Tamil Nadu: Evidence from a Cross-sectional Survey among Adolescent Schoolgirls 2022-03-21T08:43:41+00:00 Priya Ranjan R. Rathisha <p>Background: The study aims to determine the factors associated with restriction during menstruation among adolescent girls. To find out the source of knowledge and information regarding menstruation and emotional reaction at the time of menarche. Methods: A Cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Schools of Chinnalapatti, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A sample size of 116 adolescent girls aged 9–18 years. The questionnaire included questions regarding demographics, socio-category, education, family income, age at menarche, emotion response at menarche, social restriction, source of knowledge, and information. Results: The mean age year of menarche was 11.72 ± 1.27 years. Most adolescent girls (52.59%) informed their mothers first menarche. Furthermore, significant participants responded that mothers and relatives were the common sources of knowledge and information regarding menstruation. Participants were not allowed to go in religious activities (99.14%), not allowed to go near plants (99%), forced to be separated from others (35.34%). Parent qualification had a significant influence on restriction during menstruation. Conclusion: A significant percentage of girls have to face many kinds of restrictions during menstruation. Socioeconomic factors were significantly associated with the types of restrictions during menstruation. The study suggests that elementary knowledge and awareness about menstruation must be dispersed by the schools/NGOs where teachers, students (male and female), and their parents should participate for better awareness, leading to overcoming the efficiency.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Priya Ranjan, R. Rathisha Assessment of Status, Awareness, and Attitude Associated with Childhood Immunization in Delhi – NCR, India 2022-03-21T08:52:08+00:00 Meena Yadav Jyoti Singh Vidhu Kaushik Himanshi Yadav Nidhi Naina Minal Mishra <p>Introduction: Immunization is a preventive measure that reduces the occurrence of diseases and child mortality rate. India has made significant progress in this area and continuous efforts are being made to promote a large-scale immunization process for several life-threatening diseases. Aim: Our study was aimed at finding out the immunization coverage and awareness, among mothers, in Delhi – NCR through a sample of 400 respondents. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through questionnaire-cum-interview and snowball sampling method and included 400 respondents who were mothers having at least one child below 6 years of age. Results: We found that a large percentage of respondents (97.25%) had immunized their children for the recommended vaccines. Mother’s education and occupation were the major influencing forces, with educated and professionally working mothers fairing better, highlighting the importance of female literacy. The full immunization coverage for all five vaccines was 69.27%. Hospitals and doctors were the major sources of information (55.5%) about immunization and more than half of the respondents (55.25%) got their children immunized in government hospitals. Gender of child and economic status of the family were not significant factors affecting immunization. The major factors for not immunizing or delaying the immunization of children were lack of motivation and the busy routine of parents. Conclusion: Female literacy is a major factor influencing immunization success, it should be targeted and not only awareness campaigns but also incentive-based strategies should be employed to create awareness and encourage parents. Complete and timely vaccination of children can protect them from grave diseases and also stop outbreaks of many diseases.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Meena Yadav, Jyoti Singh, Vidhu Kaushik, Himanshi Yadav, Nidhi, Naina, Minal Mishra A Comparative Study of White Muscle and Red Muscle Fiber Architectural Parameters 2022-03-21T08:56:04+00:00 Ajay Kumar Birendra Jhajharia <p>The primary objective of this research was to compare red muscle fiber and white muscle fiber muscle architectural parameters of vastus lateralis (VL). The study sample consisted of 70 recreationally active male students from Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. One repetition maximum Dr. Hatfield test was used to determine muscle fiber type. Thirty (N1 = 15 red muscle fiber group and N2 = 15 red muscle fiber group) out of 70 samples were retained in study for further evaluation. Muscle architectural parameters (VL, pennation angle [PA], fascicle length [FA], and muscle thickness [MT]) were measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Independent sample t-test was employed to determine a significant difference between selected white muscle fibers group and selected red muscle fibers on the basis of selected muscle architectural parameters. The vastus lateralis muscle showed differences in its PA, FA, and MT between different muscle fiber groups. The PA of red muscle fiber group was greater than white muscle fiber group, whereas the FA and MT of white muscle fiber group were greater than red muscle fiber group. In conclusion, architectural parameters studies carried on specific sports group will be helpful in future, and muscle architectural parameters may be considered as a new approach for muscle fiber type classification in the future.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ajay Kumar, Birendra Jhajharia A Cross-Sectional Study to Determine the Use of Online Healthcare Consultancy and Services for Non-communicable Diseases in Middle Age Population during COVID-19 in Bilaspur Chhattisgarh 2022-03-21T10:50:18+00:00 Avani Saraswat M. Surya Durga Prasad <p>The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of use of online healthcare services in urban population age between 40 and 60 years in Bilaspur Chhattisgarh before and during COVID-19 and also to get idea about convenience, affordability, and satisfaction of online healthcare services for non-communicable diseases during COVID-19 in middle-age adults in Bilaspur. The ethical committee of the University of Hyderabad approved this Cross-sectional study which was done using the cluster sampling method, including five major areas of Bilaspur city. Online questionnaire was used containing 11 compulsory questions (objective type) and 3 questions were optional. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and R studio. Responses of 200 participants who are suffering from non communicable diseases (NCDs) were recorded. The prevalence of participants using online healthcare services before COVID 19 is 22.5 and during COVID 19 is 36. Chi-square test was done in the project for 95% confidence interval and the p value came out to be 0.003001, which is significant. There is a positive correlation between convenience, affordability, and satisfaction. More participants are using online healthcare services during COVID-19 for NCDs in Bilaspur. The use of online healthcare services is more in males compared to females.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Avani Saraswat, M. Surya Durga Prasad A Review on Diagnostic Reference Levels for Adult Patients Undergoing Chest (Coronary Angiography) Computed Tomography Scan in North-East India 2022-03-21T11:04:31+00:00 Arnabjyoti Deva Sarma Jibon Sharma Mrinal Kanti Singha <p>In the radiological department, the computed tomography (CT) scan process has become a greater radiation dosage that contributes to all medical X-ray treatments. Many studies throughout the world have found that CT accounts for just 5% of all operations conducted yet accounts for 34% of yearly radiation exposures in all medical X-ray treatments. Similarly, other studies have found that CT accounts for 17% of all operations conducted worldwide but accounts for 49% of total yearly doses in all medical X-ray treatments. Because diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are one of the ways of optimizing a dose in a CT procedure, the goal of this review is to provide a DRLs for adults who undergo chest and abdomen CT scan examinations in northern India, based on research for this region and comparing with international values to see if better optimization protocol is being practiced. DRLs for the chest are 18.35mGy for CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) and 765 for dose length product (DLP), according to this review, while DRLs for the abdomen are 18.25 mGy and 1870.75 for CTDI (vol) and DLP, respectively. As a result, all of the DRLs examined had greater values than the international values compared, with the exception of CTDI (vol) of International Commission on Radiological Protection 2007 publications. CT technology is in desperate need of an update. In the northern region, optimizing methods, including exposure and technical parameter selection, should reduce dose fluctuations.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arnabjyoti Deva Sarma, Jibon Sharma, Mrinal Kanti Singha Effect of Micronutrients Intake and Physical Activity on Depression and Anxiety: A Review 2022-03-21T11:13:24+00:00 Gunjan Patel Arpi Shah Nishita Baxi <p>Depression and anxiety are increasing at global and national level at the rampant rate and hence are the main reason for deterioration in mental health. This, in turn, leads to a poor physical health. With the increase in the incidence of the rate of both the disorder, it is a silent killer as well. There are many medical and non-medical treatments are available for the cure of anxiety and depression. A few nutrients such as zinc, selenium, iron, magnesium, iodine, and Vitamin A, B complex, D, and Vitamin C have also shown a beneficial role in the improvement of anxiety and depression symptoms. There is a possible role of optimal physical activity in reduction of symptoms of anxiety and depression. Very few studies are available on the role of these micronutrient intakes and physical activity on anxiety and depression. Hence more research is required in this field of study.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gunjan Patel, Arpi Shah, Nishita Baxi Awareness, Perception, and Practice of Obese Patients toward COVID-19: A Study from Tertiary Care Center, India 2022-03-21T11:23:59+00:00 Ranveer Singh Jadon Divya Tripathi Swati Allen Mayank Pandey Karishma Gupta Tanveer Kaur Amulya Gupta Animesh Ray Piyush Ranjan Prayas Sethi Naval Kishore Vikram <p>Introduction: COVID-19 has emerged as a global health crisis. It has been established that people with obesity are prone to develop severe manifestations of COVID-19. Since there is no established treatment of the disease, yet, it is essential to increase public awareness toward prevention of infection. This study was aimed to assess the awareness, perception, and practices of obese subjects toward COVID-19 infection. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 260 obese patients between August 2020 and November 2020 who were enrolled in obesity and metabolic disorders clinic at our institute. A structured questionnaire consisting of 23 questions (15 of knowledge, four of perception, and four of practices) was administered by telephonic interview with the patients. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with poor knowledge and practice toward COVID-19. Results: The mean age of the participants was 41.7 ± 10.2 years, with 166 (64%) females. Mean awareness score obtained by subjects was 9.1 ± 2.2 out of 15. The scores were categorized into good, moderate, and poor. Subjects with poor awareness constituted 36% of study population. Mean perception score of participants was 14.0 ± 2 out of 20. Majority of patients (69.2%) had moderate perception score. Mean score obtained in practices was 18.5 ± 2.1 out of 20 and 92% of subjects reported good practices. Age was negatively associated with awareness score. Gender and educational qualification had a significant impact on awareness score with males having better awareness then females. Graduates and above had higher awareness score. Increase in awareness score was found to be associated with improved practices but not with perception. Conclusion: The prevalence of good practices toward COVID-19 among obese patients was high (92%) although poor awareness was also highly prevalent (36%). Increasing the awareness through various means should be considered.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ranveer Singh Jadon, Divya Tripathi, Swati Allen, Mayank Pandey, Karishma Gupta, Tanveer Kaur, Amulya Gupta, Animesh Ray, Piyush Ranjan, Prayas Sethi, Naval Kishore Vikram Electromyography Based Analysis of the Impact of Ageing on Muscle Activation Pattern during Static and Dynamic Balance Control Tasks: A Systematic Review 2022-03-21T11:32:25+00:00 N. K. Multani Singh Sonia Sorabh Sharma Ralmila Ravinder Kaur <p>The present systematic review was done, to examine the impact of aging on posture control mechanisms in terms of muscle activity and sway patterns. English language articles describing effects of aging on muscle activation pattern during balance control tasks using electromyography methods published from 2000 to 2019 were identified. Studies were compared with regards to study population, postural tasks, perturbations, muscle inclusion, and outcome measures. All the included studies (N-9) exhibited increased postural sway among elderly in contrast to young population. In contrast, inconsistency was observed in the muscle activation pattern, muscle dependency, and muscle co-contractions among the studies. Altogether, the findings of the review suggest that the aging causes alterations in muscle activity in order to maintain balance during challenging situations; however, the studies do not elucidate these changes across the ages.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 N. K. Multani, Singh Sonia, Sorabh Sharma, Ralmila Ravinder Kaur Anti-inflammatory Activity and Isolation of Luteolin from Plagiochasma appendiculatum Methanol Extract 2022-03-22T07:13:16+00:00 Shweta Pandey Mahendra Rana <p>Plagiochasma appendiculatum, a flavonoid rich liverwort, is reported to be used in the treatment of cuts, burns, outside wounds, bacteriostatic, pulmonary tuberculosis, neurasthenia, fractures, convulsions, scalds, uropathy, and inflammation by tribal communities. In the present study, flavonoid luteolin, reported to possess anti-inflammatory potential, is isolated from P. appendiculatum methanol extract and extract is evaluated for anti-inflammatory effect. Anti-inflammatory potential was studied by protein denaturation assay and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. Plant flavonoid is isolated from methanol extract by column chromatography, using petroleum ether and ethyl acetate in various proportion, as mobile phase. Further identified by spectroscopic analysis. In vitro studies, at a concentration of 800 μg/ml, P. appendiculatum methanolic extract (PAME) exhibited 74% inhibition while indomethacin showed 79% inhibition at the same concentration. The extract exhibits a decrease in inflammation in rat hind paw when tested with carrageenan-induced paw edema. PAME at a dose of 150 mg/kg displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity compared to the other groups during the course of the observation period. The methanol extract yielded a yellow color crystalline compound which is characterized as 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4-chromenone, commonly known as luteolin. Isolation of luteolin from P. appendiculatum is first time reported, which supports the ethnobotanical claims and provides scientific explanation for anti-inflammatory use of mentioned liverwort.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shweta Pandey, Mahendra Rana Investigation of Flavonoids in Stereospermum suaveolens DC Leaves (Patala) Using HPTLC Analysis for Inflammatory Pain, Swelling, and Edema Treatment 2022-03-22T08:02:18+00:00 R. R. Chanshetti D. D. Bandawane <p>Background: As per extensive research study, it was observed that Stereospermum suaveolens DC (Patala) is rich sources of flavonoids. These phytoconstituents have played an important role in prevention and maintenance of acute and chronic diseases of pain and inflammation. There is need to explore method for identification and quantification of the presence of flavonoids in S. suaveolens DC leaves (SSL) by qualitatively and quantitatively and to establish its mechanism in pain, swelling and edema Aim: The aim of the study was to identify and assess role of flavonoids in SSL by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis and animal screening models of inflammatory pain, swelling, and edema. Materials and Methods: HPTLC to quantify flavonoid in the ethyl acetate fraction of plant component in comparison with Quarcetin. The inflammatory pain, swelling, and edema method were investigated by acetic acid induced writhing method in mice, histamine-induced edema in Wistar rats, and croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. The test doses 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg oral administration (p.o.) of ethyl acetate fraction of SSL were selected by oral acute toxicity OECD 423. Results: HPTLC analytical method estimated presence of flavonoids and estimated amount was 22.64%. However, inhibition in histamine-induced paw edema and reduction inhibition in ear edema significantly (P &lt; 0.05) observed by dose-dependent effect and antinociceptive activity detected on acetic acid induced writhing response method in mild to moderately using one-way analysis of variance method. Conclusion: It was clear that flavonoids were responsible for direct and indirect release of intermediate inflammatory mediators and promote its role in the treatment of pain and swelling.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 R. R. Chanshetti, D. D. Bandawane A Meticulous Appraisal of Vyaghri Haritaki Avaleha – An Ayurvedic Medicament WSR to Stability Study 2022-03-22T08:14:56+00:00 Mehul Mehta Sushant Sud Griva Bhatt Bhumi Kantariya Sunesh Pandit <p>Stability study of the Ayurvedic formulations plays a significant role to provide actual shelf life of the medicament. Hence, it is necessary to perform stability studies of Ayurvedic compound formulations. The stability study was planned to observe whether any physical, chemical, and microbiological change takes place in Vyaghri Haritaki samples by keeping them at three different temperatures (47°C, 37°C, and 25–30°C) for 3 months. The samples kept for accelerated stability study were analyzed after 3 months and the details have been presented in this section.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mehul Mehta, Sushant Sud, Griva Bhatt, Bhumi Kantariya, Sunesh Pandit Validated Method for the Determination of Five Membered Heterocyclic Polar Compound Imidazole in Drug Substances Using Capillary Electrophoresis and UV Detection 2022-03-22T08:26:36+00:00 Appalacharyulu Salapaka Kishore Babu Bonige Hemant Kumar Sharma Uttam Kumar Ray Raghu Babu Korupolu <p>A simple and sensitive method based on capillary electrophoresis with UV detection was developed, optimized, and validated for the determination of five membered heterocyclic polar compound, imidazole in pharmaceutical drug substances. Separation was achieved on bare fused silica capillary using a simple running buffer, potassium dihydrogen phosphate at pH 4.0. Capillary temperature set at 25°C. The applied voltage was 25 kV across the capillary and the samples were injected by hydrodynamically at a pressure of 50 mbar for 5 s. Analyte was monitored at 210 nm. The achieved limit of detection value was 0.005%w/w, limit of quantification value was 0.014%w/w, and the average accuracy value was 98.4% for imidazole. The aim of present study is to develop a specific and sensitive method for the determination of imidazole to overcome the void volume and sample matrix interferences.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Appalacharyulu Salapaka, Kishore Babu Bonige, Hemant Kumar Sharma, Uttam Kumar Ray, Raghu Babu Korupolu Detection and Prevalence of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus: Experience from Tertiary Care Hospital in Jaipur 2022-03-22T08:34:13+00:00 Aishwarya Shrigaur Ved Prakash Mamoria Ekadashi Rajni Richa Sharma <p>Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of bacterial infections in both developed and developing countries. Emerging resistance to methicillin in this organism has left us with very few therapeutic alternatives to treat the infections caused by them. Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S. aureus isolates due to the increasing prevalence of resistance to most antimicrobial agents in staphylococci signifies the need for new effective agents to treat staphylococcal infections. Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology at Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Sitapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan. All S. aureus isolates (non-repetitive) from different clinical samples received in clinical microbiology laboratory from in and outpatients in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, were included in the study. Results: Out of 157 erythromycin-resistant S. aureus, 74 (47.133%) show MS phenotype, 48 (30.57%) show inducible clindamycin resistance, and 35 (22.29%) show constitutive resistance. All 48 S. aureus isolates which showed inducible clindamycin resistances (D-test positive) were further subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing.In the present study, 100% sensitivity was observed by vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline, followed by tetracycline, 89.58% and gentamicin, 83.33% while 100% resistivity were observed by levofloxacin. Conclusion: We can conclude that there is high percentage of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus isolates. If D-test would not have been performed, many inducible clindamycin-resistant S. aureus could have been easily misidentified as clindamycin susceptible, leading to therapeutic failure. Thus, simple and reliable D-test can be incorporated into routine in clinical microbiology laboratory.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aishwarya Shrigaur, Ved Prakash Mamoria, Ekadashi Rajni, Richa Sharma Stroke-Related Risk Factors: A Review 2022-03-22T09:08:49+00:00 Neha Rani Saini Amrit Lal Gurvendra <p>Stroke (cerebrovascular accident) is the second leading cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. The major risk factors of stroke are categorized as modifiable and non-modifiable. Modifiable risk factors include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and smoking. Non-modifiable risk factors include age, genetic, gender, and race. Risk factors that are specific to women including pregnancy, postpartum period, and oral contraceptives, some psychological factors such as stress and depression are linked to stroke. The burden of stroke is increasing globally. Furthermore, because stroke treatment is not satisfactory, significant effort should be focused on reducing risk factors to reduce the disease’s effects. The current study will provide a better understanding of risk factors associated with stroke that may further lead to improved prevention of stroke.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Neha Rani Saini, Amrit Lal Gurvendra Factors Related to Health Service Utilization among Adolescent Girls in Urban Slums of Jaipur, India 2022-03-22T09:16:50+00:00 Rajnish Ranjan Prasad Anoop Khanna Hemant Dwivedi Divya Santhanam <p>Objective: This study aimed to determine the factors associated with health-care service utilization among adolescent girls in urban slums in Jaipur, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 417 adolescent girls was conducted. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the data and determine the factors associated with healthcare service utilization. Findings: Only 48.2% of girls with health problems visited health-care facilities for treatment. About 68.6% delayed treatment by 3 or more days after the onset of symptoms, and 85.6% first tried remedies available at home. Girl’s education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65– 8.57), mother’s education (AOR = 3.43; 95% CI = 1.2– 9.96), father’s income (AOR = 2.2; 95% CI = 0.76– 5.32), mother’s income (AOR = 3.67; 95% CI = 1.03– 11.18), and counseling by field health workers (AOR = 3.23; 95% CI = 1.18– 7.89) were factors significantly associated with utilization of health services. Girls cited parental neglect of their health, insufficient funds, lack of privacy, and inconvenient assessment times at health facilities as major barriers. Conclusion: The findings from the study show that the utilization of facility-based health services among adolescent girls is low, and there is a significant postponement in visiting health facilities after the onset of symptoms. There is a need to create community-level awareness, improve outreach by field health workers, ensure privacy in health-care facilities, and improve facility-based health service utilization among adolescent girls.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rajnish Ranjan Prasad, Anoop Khanna, Hemant Dwivedi, Divya Santhanam Marital and Sexual Satisfaction, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Wives of Patients with Chronic Illnesses 2022-03-25T09:11:41+00:00 Daanesh M. Umrigar Rajendra S. Mhaske Swarnima Bhargava Shivanand R. Thorat <p>Objectives: The objectives of the study were to explore the psychological health, as well as the levels of marital and sexual satisfaction, of wives of patients with a chronic illness. Methods: The sample consisted of 34 women, whose husbands were diagnosed and undergoing treatment for a chronic illness (coronary heart disease; diabetes; or cancer). Results: Correlational, comparative, and predictive analyses were conducted on the data. Clinically significant marital and sexual dissatisfactions were found. Wives reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, but severe levels of stress. Depression and sexual satisfaction were found to be significant predictors of marital satisfaction. Marital dissatisfaction scores were significantly lower for wives who were employed as compared to unemployed wives. Discussion: Wives are impacted by the illness status of their spouse. The additional stress of caregiving, along with societally ascribed roles and responsibilities on women, creates a more difficult, stressful environment, which affects the relationship satisfaction as well as psychological health and well-being.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Daanesh M. Umrigar, Rajendra S. Mhaske, Swarnima Bhargava, Shivanand R. Thorat Microbial Association of Gastroduodenal Diseases with Special Reference to Epstein–Barr Virus and Helicobacter pylori and their Effect on Expression of miRNAs: A Review 2022-03-25T09:01:53+00:00 Asitava Deb Roy Supriyo Sen <p>Gastroduodenal diseases are very commonly encountered among patients who attend hospital with the complaints of dyspepsia. These diseases range from inflammatory ones like gastritis and peptic ulcer disease to neoplastic ones like gastric carcinoma and lymphoma. Gastroduodenal diseases may be caused by various factors of which microbial association with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori and a virus called Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is noteworthy. It has also been noted in various studies that the coinfection by these two organisms may also play a significant role in an exaggerated inflammatory response in cases of gastritis which may ultimately lead to carcinoma (Correa’s cascade of carcinogenesis). As a result, it appears critical to identify both H. pylori and EBV in samples taken for biopsy in various gastroduodenal illnesses. Recent research has also suggested that these two separate etiologies may work together to cause gastric cancer, with miRNAs playing a key part in this process. This review presents the status of the current research on the association of gastroduodenal diseases with EBV and H. pylori along with the emerging context of the connection with miRNA expression. This will help to understand these complex etiologies having significant bearing on human health as well as highlight the need for intensive research in the subject.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Asitava Deb Roy, Supriyo Sen Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Accredited Social Health Activists: An Exploratory Study in Rangareddy District of Telangana, India 2022-03-25T08:57:53+00:00 Mousmi Kirtania M. Surya Durga Prasad <p>The whole world is immensely dealing with the COVID-19 which was originated from the Wuhan city in the end of 2019. All the countries have been in a devastating state by the sudden outbreak which led to many deaths from the deadly infection. Many low- and middle-income countries are being suffering due to the poor healthcare infrastructure and a smaller number of healthcare workers. India is one of them. Due to the insufficient number of healthcare workers, the workload on the existing numbers has increased to a double-fold, especially on the grass-root workers. Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA), an initiative of the National Rural Health Mission in India is involved in the implementation of the primary health care facility at the grassroot level. The effective implementation of the health care policy depends on the performance of the ASHA workers. The present study aims to identify the challenges and barriers faced by the ASHA workers while delivering their services during the pandemic times and provide policy suggestions for strengthening of the grass-root level health care workers for facing any kind of future health emergencies.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mousmi Kirtania, M. Surya Durga Prasad Comparative Analysis between Effect of Shoulder Strength and Core Endurance on Bowling Speed in Pace Bowlers 2022-03-29T05:48:50+00:00 Amrinder Singh Ghosha Joshi Shweta Shenoy Jaspal Sandhu <p>Background: Cricket has received considerable research attention due to popularity. Ability of bowlers to bowl with high-speed plays a major role in success. Earlier studies have suggested that shoulder and core play a crucial role in kinetic chain which results in improved bowling speed. Objective: The objective of this study was to study relative efficacies of shoulder strength and core endurance on bowling speed in pace bowlers. Methods: Forty male pace bowlers having age (20.10 ± 3.71) in years from Punjab participated in the study. Bowling speed was measured with Radar Gun. Shoulder strength measured with Biodex dynamometer. Core endurance was measured by McGill protocol. Statistical analysis of was carried out using SPSS version 23. Results: Bowling speed was recorded as mean ± SD 91.00 ± 10.10 km/h. Significant fair positive relationship found between bowling speed and external rotators at angular velocity of 90°/s and (r = 0.386) and shoulder flexors at 60°/s (r = 0.408), 90°/s (r = 0.383), and 120°/s (r =0.448). Trunk extension shows fair positive significant relationship (r =0.327) with bowling speed. Conclusion: The present study contributes toward pace bowlers’ training and focus on necessity of further research considering limitations of COVID-19 pandemic.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Amrinder Singh, Ghosha Joshi, Shweta Shenoy, Jaspal Sandhu Awareness Assessment of Treatment Target Goals for Persons Living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Accessing Care in a Tertiary Health Facility, Southeast Nigeria 2022-03-29T06:00:34+00:00 M. O. Nkpozi I. F. Ogbonna C. M. Ezeude G. C. Nwala <p>Background: Diabetes clinic visits by persons living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (PLWDM) afford the healthcare professionals (HCPs) opportunities to assess their achievements of the recommended treatment targets for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI). Meeting these targets significantly affect treatment outcome in diabetes mellitus (DM). Awareness of the treatment targets by PLWDM attending the diabetes clinic of Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH), Aba, Southeast Nigeria, is not known. This study, therefore, set out to bridge this gap in knowledge. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study in which consenting PLWDM attending the diabetes clinic of ABSUTH, Aba, were consecutively recruited. Interviewer-administered questionnaire was filled for each subject to assess their knowledge and awareness of the treatment target goals for HbA1C, BP, lipid profile, and BMI. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23.0 software. Results: A total of 165 persons living with DM, 60 (36.4%) males and 105 (63.6%) females, participated in the study. Majority of them (89.1%) were ignorant of HbA1C and its implications while awareness of their treatment target goals for HbA1C, BP, lipid profile, and BMI was very low at 1.8%, 16.4%, 1.8%, and 0%, respectively, despite their formal educational levels. Conclusion/Recommendation: Awareness of treatment target goals for HBA1C, BP, lipid profile, and BMI was very low among PLWDM in Aba, southeast Nigeria. It is strongly recommended that the HCPs step up their games in diabetes education programs.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 M. O. Nkpozi, I. F. Ogbonna, C. M. Ezeude, G. C. Nwala Interval Training’s Influence on Changes in Selected Strength Parameters among College Kabaddi Players 2022-03-29T06:03:54+00:00 M. Karuppaiah M. Suresh Kumar <p>The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of interval training on changes in selected strength parameters among college kabaddi players. It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences on selected strength parameters due to the effect of interval training among college kabaddi players. For the present study, 30 male college kabaddi players from Affiliated Colleges of Bharathidasan University in Tiruchirappalli jurisdiction, Tamilnadu, were selected at random and their age ranged from 18 to 25 years. For the present study, pre-test–post-test random group design which consists of control group and experimental group was used. The subjects were randomly assigned to two equal groups of fifteen each and named as Group “A” and Group “B”. Group “A” underwent interval training and Group “B” has not undergone any training. Explosive strength was assessed by standing long jump and muscular strength was assessed by push-up test. The data were collected before and after 12 weeks of training. The data were analyzed by applying analysis of covariance. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Interval training has a positive impact on college kabaddi players’ explosive strength and muscular strength.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 M. Karuppaiah, M. Suresh Kumar Behavioral Changes and Cognitive Decline among Elderly 2022-03-31T10:43:18+00:00 Shephali Dixit U. V. Kiran Padmini Pandey <p>An individual’s behavior is impacted by a complex interaction of factors such as cognitive impairment, physical and mental health, past habits, personality, and environment. The cognitive decline means that your brain does not work as well as it used to. This study aimed to examine behavioral problems and cognitive decline among the elderly. The research information was gathered using multistage random sampling from various locations of Lucknow city (U.P). A total of 100 elderly were selected for conducting the present study comprising elderly belonging to different ages and both gender. A general information sheet was developed to collect the general information of the respondents. A Revised Memory and Behavioral Checklist scale developed by Teri, 1992, was used to assess the behavioral problems among the elderly. Females were found to have severe cognitive decline and behavioral problems compared to male respondents. Cooperation from family members and counseling sessions may prove beneficial in improving the overall cognitive health of female respondents.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shephali Dixit, U. V. Kiran, Padmini Pandey A Review on Curcumin and its Use as Novel Drug Delivery System 2022-03-31T10:47:55+00:00 Shweta Vashist Sujata Sharma Jyoti Kumari Manoj Gadewar Sahil Arora <p>Curcumin is a principle compound obtained from turmeric, that is, Curcuma longa which is Indian rhizomatous medicinal plant from the family Zingiberaceae. Curcumin is yellow pigment commonly used as a spice in food processing industry. Curcumin, Demethoxycurcumin, and Bisdemethoxycurcumin are the major active constituents of the turmeric and are collectively known as curcuminoids. In recent studies, it has been demonstrated that curcumin has a variety of biological activities, pharmacological performances, provide protection, and promotion of health. This paper reviews the current research progress on its versatile bioactivity, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-regulatory activities, cancers, diabetes, liver, and cardiovascular systems. The curcumin belongs to biopharmaceutical classification system Class IV that indicates low solubility and low permeability. The systemic bioavailability of orally administered curcumin is low in humans and only traces of it have been found in the liver. Here, we emphasized its broad therapeutic activity in treating life-threatening diseases by improving solubility as well as permeability with the help of novel drug delivery system.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shweta Vashist, Sujata Sharma, Jyoti Kumari, Manoj Gadewar, Sahil Arora A Case of Gilbert Syndrome and Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus with Elevated HbA1C Improved with Individualized Homeopathic Medicine 2022-03-31T10:52:56+00:00 C. Kannan Preena Jane P. Venkadakrishnan <p>Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorders in the present era from altered lifestyle. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) is the most reliable blood parameter for diagnosis and prognosis of diabetes mellitus. Gilbert syndrome in diabetic patients lowers the prevalence of microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Even though Gilbert syndrome is a fortunate factor in this patient, progressive weight loss is the raising concern. From proteolysis and diuresis, kidneys can get damaged in course of time. Uncontrolled HbA1C again can increase the risk of complications of diabetes mellitus. In this case, HbA1C and weight loss with diabetes mellitus improved with an individualized homeopathic approach. Natrum Muriaticum was selected on a constitutional basis, and it was administered on an LM scale which helped the patient in bringing down blood parameters and managing weight loss of Diabetes.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 C. Kannan, Preena Jane, P. Venkadakrishnan Assessment of Bundle of Measures Perioperatively to Decrease the Incidence of Surgical Site Wound Infection in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Hysterectomies 2022-04-02T05:52:04+00:00 Priyam Biswas Rathindra Nath Ray Pritha Kolay Shefali Kumari Dibyojyoti Das <p>Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the second most common reason for unplanned hospital readmissions after hysterectomy and result in increased morbidity and health care costs. The estimated rate of SSI after hysterectomy varies between 1% and 4%. The objective of the study is to investigate if a bundle of perioperative measures (as stated earlier) reduces down the incidence of post-operative surgical site wound infection after abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: The present prospective study was carried out on total 200 women who were undergo hysterectomy in the operation theater of Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of IPGMER and SSKM Hospital due to gynecological conditions requiring hysterectomy. Four perioperative bundles of measures are considered – 1. chlorhexidine gluconate and Cetrimide solution (Savlon) wash of the operative field 1 h before the operation, 2. administration of single dose antibiotic (Inj. Ceftriaxone 1 g intravenous) 1 h or less before the incision, 3. vaginal wash with povidone-iodine, and 4. sterile dressing is to be maintained and removed postoperatively after 48 h. Result: We found that in case, 94 (94.0%) patients had Ceftriaxone and 6 (6.0%) patients had clindamycin and gentamicin. In control, 96 (96.0%) patients had ceftriaxone and 4 (4.0%) patients had clindamycin and gentamicin. Association of choice of antibiotic versus group was not statistically significant (P = 0.5164). In case, 6 (6.0%) patients had wound gaping. In control, 11 (11.0%) patients had wound gaping. Association of wound gaping versus group was statistically significant (P = 0.048). Conclusion: The present study found that hospital stay was more in control compared to case which was statistically significant. Fever was more in control compared to case which was statistically significant. In this study, local wound discharge was more in control compared to case which was statistically significant. It was found that wound gaping was more in control compared to case which was statistically significant.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Priyam Biswas, Rathindra Nath Ray, Pritha Kolay, Shefali Kumari, Dibyojyoti Das Prevalence of Scapulothoracic Dysfunction in Primipara after One Year of Delivery 2022-04-02T05:58:57+00:00 Shinde Sandeep B Kadav Nayan A Pawar Piyusha S Patil Sanjay Kumar Shinde Ravindra V Ambali Manoj P <p>Background: During pregnancy, there are various physiological, biomechanical, postural, and emotional changes taking place. The changes in posture which occurs during pregnancy are even maintained in postpartum period if they remain uncorrected. Due to the enlargement of breasts, size of the uterus, and mother’s weight, there is increase in lumbar and cervical lordosis and there is compensatory thoracic kyphosis, the shoulder and upper back become rounded. There is scapular protraction and internal rotation of the upper extremity; these adaptations of posture may also persist in the postpartum period due to infant care demands. Pectoralis muscles tightness and weakness of the scapular stabilizers may be pre-existing to or may occur due to pregnancy postural changes. Hence, there is a need of evaluating the upper quadrant musculoskeletal involvement during the postpartum period and its correlation with changes that occur during pregnancy. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the prevalence of scapulothoracic dysfunction in primipara after 1 year of delivery. Methods: A total 150 primipara women who had completed 1 year of delivery were randomly selected from the Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad in this analytical observational study. Scapulothoracic dysfunction was assessed using postural examination chart in the anterior, lateral and posterior views by plumb line, manual muscle testing for muscle strength, and special tests for scapular dysfunction. Results: The result showed that 71% found to be positive for scapulothoracic dysfunction through YES/NO test, respectively. Majority of the subjects (45%) had type II scapular dyskinesis, while 18% subjects had type I, 11% had type III, and 22% had type IV. On postural examination, 27% had forward head posture, 55% had protracted shoulder, and 60% had kyphotic posture. The strength test showed that 57% subjects had weak trapezius, 60% had serratus anterior weak and significant amount of weakness with gradings in the range of −3–+3 for 57% subjects in trapezius, 60% in serratus anterior, and 65% had weak rhomboid’s major with gradings in the range of −3–+3, respectively. Conclusion: The study concludes that, statistically, there was high prevalence of scapulothoracic dysfunction in primipara women after 1 year of delivery. This was due of the slouched posture that the women’s adapted due to increase in breast size, increased size of the uterus, breast feeding positioning, and also infant care which demanded hunched back posture. It was also found that women had lack of knowledge about posture.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shinde Sandeep B, Kadav Nayan A, Pawar Piyusha S, Patil Sanjay Kumar, Shinde Ravindra V, Ambali Manoj P Study of Lumbosacral Posture and Pelvic Angle in Odissi Classical Dancers 2022-04-06T10:39:23+00:00 Tanushree Yalavatti Shradha Pawar <p>Background: This study was designed to find out the prevalence of backache due to musculoskeletal injuries in Odissi dancers and the influence of lumbar posture and pelvic angle in causing backache. Methods: Study design: This was a cross-sectional and observational study; Sample size: 60 numbers were classified into, Group A: 20 - Normal Individuals, Group B: 20 - Beginner Odissi dancers, and Group C: 20 - Advanced Odissi dancers. Inclusion criteria: 1) Normal individuals between 20 and 24 years of age not trained in Indian classical dance, 2) Odissi dancers trained for &lt;2 years- Beginner’s group, and 3) Odissi dancers trained for more than 10 years - Advanced group. Exclusion criteria: 1) People trained in other forms of dance, other than Odissi, and 2) recent MSK injuries. Assessment of lumbar posture and the pelvic angle performed using flexicurve and pelvic inclinometer. Results: 1) Inter group comparison of mean Pelvic angle (degree): Pelvic angle (degree) was higher in Group 2 in comparison to other two groups and was statistically significant with P &lt; 0.01. Pelvic angle (degree) was also observed to be statistically significant between the Groups 1 versus 2 (P &lt; 0.01) and 1 versus 3 (P &lt; 0.05). 2) Inter group comparison of mean of Lumbar lordosis angle {Theta angle (θ)} using turkey post hoc tests: There was no statistical significance between either groups for theta angle. Conclusion: This study reveals that pelvic angle in the beginner and advanced group of Odissi dancers was altered in comparison to the non-dancer group, though statistically significant needs further evaluation in larger population of Odissi dancers.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tanushree Yalavatti, Shradha Pawar Flexible Parametric Survival Cure Rate Models for Pulmonary Tuberculosis Data 2022-04-09T10:01:44+00:00 B. Vijai P. R. Jayashree C. Ponnuraja <p>This article mainly aims to compare Flexible parametric cure rate models using relative survival function and to predict cure fraction for tuberculosis (TB) data. In survival analysis, the Cox proportional-hazards model of time-to-event data is effective, but still there may be some benefits of using parametric models than non-parametric or semi-parametric models. Sometimes, it happens that a certain fraction of the data corresponds to subjects who are never involved in the event when assessing time-to-event data. Survival models that take this characteristic into account are typically referred to as cure rate models. Hence, in this article the parametric cure model to time-to-event (sputum conversion) on pulmonary TB data with the survival time distribution such as Weibull, Gamma, Exponential and Lognormal is developed. The objective of this article is to compare cure rate models to find the best model fitting survival time using the relative survival function and to predict cure fraction of TB data. The data were analyzed using “R-4.0.2” and STATA 15.0.0 statistical tools.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 B. Vijai, P. R. Jayashree, C. Ponnuraja Effect of Lowering the pH of Sodium Hypochlorite on Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Maintenance of Pharmaceutical Water System 2022-04-09T11:01:52+00:00 Koteswara Rao Mannepalli Bhagyashree Deshpande Prashant Mundeja <p>Drinking water or potable water is a common source for generation of purified water or demineralized water which is used for processing of medicinal products such as tablets, capsules, syrups, and nasal sprays. Before allowing for purification, it is manufacturer’s responsibility to ensure the microbial load control in the source water to get good quality product water and to avoid biofilm formation in waterlines. The current research involves the study of an effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at various concentrations of water pH on microbial control by following pour plate technique. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of lowering the pH on the recovery of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three groups were tested by challenging known population of P. aeruginosa by varying the pH of 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0. No significant difference was observed at pH 5.0 and 7.0 and the recovery increased when the pH increased at 9.0. Effective microbial control was obtained at neutral pH. The increase of pH resulted decrease of effectiveness of NaOCl.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Koteswara Rao Mannepalli, Bhagyashree Deshpande, Prashant Mundeja Body Mass Index as an Indicator of Depression and Stress-induced Eating Disorders among College Students in Delhi, India 2022-04-09T11:07:51+00:00 Jain Rita Das Deboshree John M. Salome <p>Obesity accounts for a wide range of psychosocial, medical, and health consequences in adolescence leading to depression and low self-esteem which further aggravate eating disorders among individuals. The aim of the study is to observe the association of eating disorders and depression among college students with their body mass index (BMI) status. The study consisted of 460 students studying in different colleges of Delhi from varying disciplines and academic years. The study utilized Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Eating Disorder Examination questionnaire to assess the depression levels of participants and their level of eating disorder. The study also collected data on the height and weight of the study participants. The association of weight status with eating disorder and depression severity was assessed using multivariate analysis of variance. Significant difference in levels of eating disorder and depression was observed (Wilks’ lambda: 0.897) among study participants by BMI status. The post hoc tests exhibited mean differences for eating disorders and depression by BMI groups to be higher for overweight compared to underweight (1.196) and normal (0.817) categories at P &lt; 0.001. Mean depression score was also observed to be significantly higher for overweight individuals compared to underweight (3.42) and normal (2.53). The study emphasizes the need for strategic plans to increase awareness among the youth on the health implications of eating disorders and its effect on mental health of individuals. The present study suggests perceived body image as a potential risk factor for unhealthy eating habits and signs of depression among college students.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jain Rita, Das Deboshree, John M. Salome Cystic Artery: Incidental Variation of Origin 2022-04-09T11:14:43+00:00 Shalini Gupta Ashish Kumar Gupta Rita Marwaha Nisha Bhalerao <p>On the basis of origin, variation of cystic artery is commonly found. Commonly, cystic artery originates from the right hepatic artery and rare condition from celiac trunk. The position of the cystic artery possesses extraordinary importance for the surgeon during cholecystectomy, because the cystic artery is the primary structure to be clipped or tie up during cholecystectomy. In this study, during cadaveric dissection incidentally found rarest condition that cystic artery originating from celiac trunk. These anatomical findings are much important for surgical and radiological aspect and may be helpful for surgeons during the performance of surgeries involving hepatic and biliary apparatus.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shalini Gupta, Ashish Kumar Gupta, Rita Marwaha, Nisha Bhalerao Evaluation of Phytochemical Profile and In Vitro Antioxidant, Anti-bacterial and Anti-inflammatory activity of Piper schmidtii Hook. fil. A Wild Edible Fruit 2022-04-09T11:22:58+00:00 M. Pradheeba M. Pugalenthi M. A. Deepa S. Vishnu Kumar G. Vasukipridharshini <p>Aim: The present study aims at screening the phytochemical components and evaluates the antioxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activity of fruit of Piper schmidtii, an endemic plant species from The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Method: The different polar solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water were used and extraction was carried out using the soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were screened for qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis. The extracts of P. schmidtii were also subjected to in vitro-antioxidant activity by DPPH assay, Phosphomolybdenum assay, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), superoxide radical scavenging activity, and reducing power assay. Results: Among all the extracts, methanol extract exhibited the maximum amount of phenolics (731.91 mg GAE/g extract), tannin (726.6 milligrams of Gallic acid equivalent/g extract), and ethyl acetate extract depicted the maximum quantity of flavonoids (698.17 mg QE/g extract). Methanol extract of P. schmidtii revealed the higher antioxidant activity in all the assays with IC50 values of 15.19 μg/ml (DPPH), 135.67 mg AAE/g (Phosphomolybdenum assay), 380.98 mM Fe/mg (FRAP), 60.94% (Superoxide) and higher reducing power was depicted in the ethyl acetate extract, respectively. Further anti-bacterial activity revealed that the methanol extract shows highest inhibitory activity against the tested bacterial pathogens. The methanol extract showed high degree of inhibition (71.24%) in anti-inflammatory assay. Conclusion: Thus, the result support that P. schmidtii is a potential source of natural antioxidant that can inhibit bacterial growth and subside inflammation.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 M. Pradheeba, M. Pugalenthi, M. A. Deepa, S. Vishnu Kumar, G. Vasukipridharshini Integrative Management of a Case with a Known History of Diabetes Mellitus with Acute Pancreatitis – A Rare Case Report 2022-04-09T11:27:32+00:00 Kannan C Preena Jane <p>Diabetes Mellitus is one of the common causes of Acute Pancreatitis. After Pancreatitis the endocrine functions of the pancreas may still worsen, and hence Diabetes Mellitus may be difficult to treat. If HbA1c gets elevated, it may prone the patient to the risk of complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disorders. There may be a possibility of a recurrent attack of pancreatitis which may further complicate the condition, and it may be difficult to treat the person. Hence, there is a need to increase the dosage of allopathic medicine which may harm the patient. Sometimes Insulin may be required to control the condition. In such cases, an integrated approach can be tried with a complementary system of medicine. This is a case with a known history of Diabetes Mellitus with Acute Pancreatitis, improved with an integrative approach. The blood parameters came within normal limits and acute exacerbation of pancreatitis was also taken care of.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kannan C, Preena Jane Assessment of Pulmonary Function Test among Petrol Pump Workers in Bankura District 2022-04-09T11:35:30+00:00 Prithviraj Karak Rajkumar Maiti <p>Background and Aim: Health problems posed by the pollutants at the working environment of an individual are linked to the nature and level of exposure to these hazardous chemicals. Petrol pump workers are exposed to high level of different types of air pollution along with petrol and diesel vapors exhibit a number of effects on the respiratory functions. The main objective of the study was to assess the pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers (filling attendants) who are continuously exposed to petrol/diesel vapors during duty hours and compare with the normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted at seven different petrol pumps of Bankura and 65 petrol pump workers (filling attendants) were included. Each subject’s age, smoking habits, the duration of exposure, health conditions, BMI and BP were recorded. Their PFT were assessed using spirometer and was compared with 65 normal healthy individuals. Results: A significant decrease in the values of Tidal Volume, Vital Capacity, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate, Maximum Voluntary Ventilation, Respiratory Rate and Oxygen saturation in petrol pump workers when compared to control group. Significant increase in BP was observed in case of petrol pump workers and reduction in muscle strength. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate the adverse effects of petrol and diesel vapors and fumes, hydrocarbons markedly decreased the pulmonary functions.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Prithviraj Karak, Rajkumar Maiti Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Care Services among Pregnant Women in Slum Population of West Delhi 2022-04-09T11:41:12+00:00 Sarika Tyagi <p>Utilization of maternal and child health (MCH) services remains poor in India. This study aimed to assess the utilization of MCH care services among pregnant women residing in an urban slum area of West Delhi. A household survey was conducted using questionnaire cum interview method for collection of sociodemographic information, obstetric history, and information on utilization of MCH care services. Pregnant women were followed within 72 h of delivery for obtaining information regarding delivery conditions. Although 96.6% of pregnant women have attended at least one antenatal care (ANC), whereas complete four ANC were attended by only one-fourth (25.3%) pregnant women. Nearly three-fourth (73.3%) pregnant women received; ANC from a government doctor and coverage for ANC components was highest in ANC provided by government doctor. Utilization of full ANC was reported by less than one-fifth pregnant women (19.18%). Only one-fifth of pregnant women (19.7%) received supplementary nutrition. Postnatal care (PNC) was received by 73.2% of women who had institutional deliveries during their stay in health facility only. Coverage of ANC components, number of ANC visits, utilization of full ANC, and PNC was found unsatisfactory. Participation in supplementary nutrition program was also poor. Intervention programs are needed for enhancing community awareness and improving the competence, confidence, and motivation of grass root health workers.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sarika Tyagi Beneficial Effects of Soy Isoflavones on Blood Pressure and Lipid Profile in Indian Postmenopausal Women 2022-04-09T11:45:00+00:00 Shazia Husain Vibha Bhatnagar <p>Background: The studies have suggested that dietary isoflavones intake in postmenopausal women had protective role against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objectives: This study ascertained the effect of isoflavone in the form of soyflour on lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women diagnosed with medium risk of CVD. Materials and Methods: It was a 16-week placebo controlled trial that was conducted on 60 postmenopausal women aged 45–55 years. Participants in the treatment group were provided with 40 g soyflour/day for 16 weeks. The participants in the control group were asked not to change their usual dietary habits and lifestyles and were instructed to avoid taking soybean and soybean products. The changes in BP and blood lipid profile were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: There were non-significant differences in any of the variables between two groups at baseline. Biochemical results indicated the beneficial effect of intervention in significantly reducing systolic (6.28%) and diastolic (4.73%) BP of the treatment group. It also exhibited an effective role in significantly (P &lt; 0.05) reducing the serum cholesterol (17.29%), triglyceride (22.22%), low density lipoprotein (24.53%), very low density lipoprotein (22.21%), and significantly increasing the high density lipoprotein (13.55%) in the treatment group. Conclusion: The study indicates that daily administration of 40g soyflour for 16 weeks improved the BP and lipid profile of postmenopausal subjects.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shazia Husain, Vibha Bhatnagar Comparison of Hematological Profile of Athletes in Various Phases of Menstrual Cycle 2022-04-12T09:20:30+00:00 Tanu Shree Yadav Gayatri Pandey Gopal Kumar <p>The purpose of the study was to compare the hematological parameters during the different phases of the menstrual cycle viz Menstrual, Follicular, Ovulation, and Luteal Phase. Thirty athletes were selected as subjects for the study who were involved in speed-endurance dominated sports. Blood samples were taken in each phase and analyzed for the following hematological variables - Red blood cells (RBCs), White blood cells (WBCs), Hemoglobin (Hb), and platelets. The results of the study showed variations in hematological parameters throughout the menstrual cycle. RBC and Hb levels significantly increased during the follicular phase (FP) but remain unchanged in the ovulation and luteal phase. WBC levels also increased during the FP, were almost similar in ovulation phase, and slightly decreased in the luteal phase. Platelet count followed a similar pattern as WBC. Platelet count increased in the FP but decreased in the luteal phase. Menstrual phase is characterized by hemorrhage which results in blood loss and decreased levels of hematological parameters. FP is seen as compensatory phase in which the hematological variables significantly increase. WBC and Platelet count decrease in the luteal phase in attributed to the decrease in the estrogen levels. The study concluded that variations in hematological parameters is observed during the different phases of the menstrual cycle.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tanu Shree Yadav, Gayatri Pandey, Gopal Kumar Impact of Covid-19 on Active Lifestyle, Physical Activity Behaviour and Physical Fitness of Adult Male Sportsmen of Delhi 2022-04-12T09:26:26+00:00 Tokas Dhirender Kumar Gopal Phulkar Ashish <p>Introduction:- The spread of COVID 19 infection led to nationwide lockdown and posed many difficulties for people to perform physical activities. Statement of Problem: The present study focuses on the impact of this COVID virus &amp; precautionary lockdown on the physical activity behavior, active lifestyle and physical fitness of adult male sportsmen of Delhi. Methodology: 500 sportsmen from all over Delhi were chosen through convenience sampling technique, who were actively participating in sports &amp; physical activities pre lockdown phase and their responses were recorded through a self-constructed questionnaire that consisted of 14 questions related to active lifestyle, physical activity routine pre &amp; post lockdown, condition of their physical fitness &amp; their views regarding future. Data Analysis:- The data collected was analyzed through descriptive statistics. Results: The results thus obtained revealed that the subjects emphasized on the active lifestyle, the fitness levels were affected adversely due to lockdown because of various reasons discussed in the paper. The results also revealed that although it was a great learning to perform physical activities through digital platform, but it should not be emphasized over traditional training methodology and the way to proceed in the future is the old way.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tokas Dhirender, Kumar Gopal, Phulkar Ashish Optimization of Support Vector Machine Classifier Using Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm for Chronic Kidney Disease Prediction 2022-04-13T09:16:33+00:00 Pallavi Sharma Gurmanik Kaur <p>The massive generation of medical data from smart health-care applications in recent years necessitates the development of big data classification strategies. Medical data classification can be used to visualize patterns in the data and detect the presence of the disease in medical data. We present an efficient support vector machine (SVM) hybridized with a grey wolf optimization (GWO) algorithm for chronic kidney disease (CKD) data classification in this work. Initially, infinite feature selection (IFS) algorithm is used to select the best features from a set of available features. The dataset’s selected features are processed and fed into the GWO optimized SVM algorithm. The proposed CKD classification strategy has been simulated in MATLAB. CKD dataset from UCI machine learning repository is utilized for testing the developed strategy. The performance of the proposed CKD classification strategy is examined by accuracy and root mean square error (RMSE) values. According to the investigational findings, the proposed CKD classification system achieved accuracy and RMSE value of 97.58% and 0.1581, respectively, for classifying subjects into the CKD and non-CKD categories. The performance of GWO optimized SVM algorithm is outstanding, according to the experimental observations.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pallavi Sharma, Gurmanik Kaur An Ayurvedic Understanding on Applications of Yogic Prana Mudra in Relation with Prana Vayu as a Supportive Measure during Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic 2022-04-13T09:21:19+00:00 B. M. Bhavya M. N. Shubhashree S. H. Doddamani <p>Introduction: Our body is a mini universe made of Panchamahabhuta (five basic elements). The Panchamahabhuta siddhantha is a basic principle of Ayurveda on which the fundamentals such as sharira (physical body), dosha (biological homors), dhatu (tissues), and mala (excretory products) are explained. The disturbance in these elements leads to an imbalanced mind and body to cause various diseases. There are various mudra (hand gestures) explained in Yoga which helps to balance these basic elements within ourselves to maintain good health. Out of these, Prana mudra has been chosen as it is one such simple yogic gesture designed to balance the Prana Vayu in the body which is very essential in maintaining the proper functioning of the lungs, to energize the heart and increases vitality. Objectives: The study aims to generate a simple conceptual framework for understanding the applications of Prana mudra and to distinguish its utility in terms of Ayurveda. Methods: Appropriate literatures of both sciences are referred, and a concept has been framed. Conclusion: Prana vayu is considered as a type of vata dosha in Ayurveda. It represents the functions of vital structures such as lungs and heart, and it is also responsible for the actions which aids in sustenance of life, and it complements well with prana (vital energy), a subtle counterpart of vata as stated in the former.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 B. M. Bhavya, M. N. Shubhashree, S. H. Doddamani Antibacterial Activity of Ceratopteris thalictroides: An Unexplored Wild Food 2022-04-16T11:49:18+00:00 Trupteemayee Behera Amandeep Kaur Arvind Kumar Rekha Maggirwar Sanjeet Kumar <p>Ceratopteris thalictroides is an important pteridophyte having food and medicinal values. It is easily available near the coastal wetland and in lowland paddy fields. The local communities consume them as a leafy vegetable and it is also a food of herbivores. Therefore, an attempt has been made to gather the information and collect the plant from the coastal areas of Konark, Odisha, India. The survey was made in January 2021 and through Passport Data Form, the information was collected. Results revealed that plant species is used as food and to cure many diseases. The phytochemical screening indicated its medicinal potential. It was observed that antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Shigella flexneri was sound. The present study highlights an unexplored fern for future food and formulation of new drugs from it to fight against antimicrobial resistance.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Trupteemayee Behera, Amandeep Kaur, Arvind Kumar, Rekha Maggirwar, Sanjeet Kumar Development and Validation RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Bilastine and Montelukast in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form 2022-05-24T10:45:56+00:00 Syed Nizamuddin S. Appala Raju <p>A simple, precise, sensitive, and rapid reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of bilastine and montelukast in bulk as well as in tablet formulation according to ICH guidelines. The chromatographic phase consisted by methanol and acetonitrile (70:30) at pH 3 adjusted by 0.1% orthophosphoric acid. The flow rate was adjusted to 1 ml/min and ultraviolet detection was carried out at 260 nm. The retention time for of bilastine and montelukast were found to be 3 and 7 min, respectively. The detector was showed linear responses over the concentration range 25–150 μg/ml for bilastine and 5–30 μg/ml for montelukast a good correlation coefficient of 0.999. This proposed method is highly sensitive, precise, and accurate which reduces cost of analysis, hence recommended for routine quality analysis in laboratories.</p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Syed Nizamuddin, S. Appala Raju