Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences <p>Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences [APJHS] is an international journal published quarterly. It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to communicate high quality original research work, reviews, short communications, case report, Ethics Forum, Education Forum and Letter to editor that contribute significantly to further the scientific knowledge related to the field of health sciences. Articles with timely interest and newer research concepts will be given more preference.</p> <p>All articles published in this journal represent the opinion of the authors and not reflect the official policy of the Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences [APJHS]. 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Legends of Medicine &amp; Health sciences associated with APJHS team.</li> <li class="show">APJHS Team comprises Editorial board members from different parts of globe.</li> <li class="show">Cross Ref and DOI Citation.</li> <li class="show">Entire Issue/Journal can be downloaded free from the website.</li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> en-US <p>Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences applies the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY)</a>&nbsp;license to published articles. Under this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, but they allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy the content as long as the original authors and source are cited. Appropriate attribution can be provided by simply citing the original article.</p> (Dr. J. K. Mukkadan) (Priyanka) Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A Novel Approach to Facilitate Arousal Following Infectious Encephalitis in Acute Setup – A Case Report <p>Encephalitis is the inflammatory disease of brain parenchyma that manifests with a spectrum of disorders including altered consciousness, impaired cognition, associated neurological impairments, aphasia, behavioral abnormalities leading to an increase in economic burden as well as delayed prognosis. However, initiating early rehabilitation to promote arousal that is task based and has associated personal salience to the patient can pay way to early arousal and shorter length of stay in acute unit. We developed a subject specific integrated multisensory stimulation technique (SSIMS) to facilitate arousal following encephalitis in acute setup. We observed improvement on Glasgow’s coma scale and Coma recovery scale following 7 days of intervention. Early task based functional therapy to target arousal along with conventional therapy can pay way to better outcomes.</p> Foram Patoliya, Bansi Khunt, Labhu Pithiya, Kinjal Solanki, Riya Devani, Mansi Padiya, Aarsi Shah Copyright (c) 2022 Foram Patoliya, Bansi Khunt, Labhu Pithiya, Kinjal Solanki, Riya Devani, Mansi Padiya, Aarsi Shah Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Fog-based Dynamic Load Balancing Framework for Healthcare using Fog Computing <p>Fog computing has become one of the leading technologies by conquering the many significant challenges in IoT, Big Data, and Cloud. Computing models are inclining toward Fog than Cloud due to faster processing. The numerous idle devices near the users help overcome the issue of latency found in the Cloud. Resource management through load balancing plays an essential role in efficient data processing. Based on the current pandemic situation, Emergency patient’s vital sign monitoring system for COVID and other variants is implemented with support of dynamic resource load balancing environment. Apart from this, previously, we have faced many such diseases such as plague and flu which were pandemic and have become normal diseases now. Apart from them, there are many critical conditions and diseases such as hypertension, kidney failure, heart attack, cancer, lung, and liver disease that need continuous monitoring. It is not feasible to treat all patients at the hospital as the count is increasing very speedily. There is a need for infrastructure to handle resource issues without any delay in the treatment of patients using the fog computing. The proposed approach DynaReLoad would provide prompt health services and prevent early deaths due to critical conditions. An immediate alert to the doctors will be generated when detecting any abnormality. The effectiveness of DynaReLoad has been analyzed with other load balancing algorithms to achieve a low latency with minimum MakeSpan, better scheduling time, and response time, maximizing load balancing level and resource utilization using iFogSim.</p> Sejal Bhavsar, Kirit Modi Copyright (c) 2022 Sejal Bhavsar, Kirit Modi Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Quality of Life and Self-care Activities Among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients on Insulin <p>Context: Self-care activities play a crucial role in the management of diabetes. It can also improve quality of life in patients. Aims: The present study was carried out to understand the QoL and self-care activities among T2DM patients on insulin and find out the association between quality of life and self-care activities. Settings and Design: This study was conducted on 105 subjects (55 females and 45 males) between the ages of 40 and 60 years with more than 1 year of T2DM attending OPD in the endocrinology department of private hospitals in North-east and East Delhi. Materials and Methods: A general questionnaire along with validated self-care (SDSCA) and quality of life (QOLID) questionnaires were used to collect data. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21.0. For the categorical variable, frequencies and percentages were calculated and for the continuous variables mean and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Mean age of subjects being 51.3 ± 6.2 years and 55% of them were females. It was observed that diet (P = 0.016), exercise (P = 0.001), blood sugar testing (P = 0.017), and foot care (P = 0.018) were strong predictors of self-care that were affecting the QoL. Mean scores of various domains between males and females revealed better QoL in males than females in domains of physical health (3.65 ± 0.94), physical endurance (4.11 ± 0.67), general health (3.19 ± 0.71), treatment satisfaction (3.55 ± 0.44), and overall QoL (3.50 ± 0.39). Conclusions: The present study showed that self-care activities and QoL among T2DM patients were poor. Results showed that improving nutritional status of patients can be effective on their QoL improvement.</p> Tanya Srivastava, Sonal Gupta Jain, Vandana Sabharwal Copyright (c) 2022 Tanya Srivastava, Sonal Gupta Jain, Vandana Sabharwal Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Biochemical Parameters, Kidney Function, and Long-term Outcome in Renal Transplant Recipients <p>Background and Aims: New-onset of diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is the most significant complications arising post-renal transplantation and affecting the long-term graft outcome and recipient survival. Assessment of renal function in kidney transplant recipients might help in understanding the better outcome of the graft and also the factors associated with NODAT. The present study was aimed to estimate the biochemical parameters, electrolytes, and minerals in the serum among renal transplant recipients and healthy controls (HC) and to evaluate the graft function, graft outcome and patient survival. Materials and Methods: Biochemical parameters (creatinine, urea, and uric acid), electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride), and minerals (calcium and phosphorus) were estimated in serum by enzymatic method using commercially available kits in 100 HC, 80 NODAT, and 80 Non-NODAT subjects. The graft outcome was assessed by comparing serum creatinine levels and urinary creatinine clearance at 0 month and 60 months. The survival rate was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Results: The mean age was significantly higher in NODAT versus non-NODAT at P &lt; 0.0009. Significant gender difference was observed in NODAT and non-NODAT versus HC at P &lt; 0.0001. The levels of creatinine, urea, and uric acid were significantly more in NODAT versus HC at P &lt; 0.0001, P &lt; 0.0001, and P &lt; 0.006. The mean levels of sodium and phosphorus were significantly lower in NODAT versus HC at P &lt; 0.008 and P &lt; 0.029. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, age, male gender, creatinine, and urea significantly predicted the outcome and the Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis revealed creatinine to be better marker for assessing kidney function. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed decreased survival rates in NODAT than non-NODAT. Conclusion: Older age (above 40), hyponatremia, and hypophosphatemia could be significant risk factors for NODAT development.</p> Shazia Ahmad, Kesiraju Sailaja, Penagaluru Pardhanandana Reddy, Sumanlatha Gaddam Copyright (c) 2022 Shazia Ahmad, Kesiraju Sailaja, Penagaluru Pardhanandana Reddy, Sumanlatha Gaddam Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Readiness for Practice among Pregraduate Nursing Students in South India: A Cross-sectional Survey <p>Background: Often the transition from student nurse to a graduate nurse causes stress and fatigue among novice nurses. This study intended to identify the readiness for practice among pregraduate nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey conducted among 195 pregraduate nursing students. Participants filled Modified Casey-Fink Readiness for practice tool. A total of 192 students responded to the survey. Student t-test and ANOVA were used to identify the difference in practice based on demographic variables. Results: Overall mean score of readiness for practice among pregraduate nurses was found to be 58.5 ± 5.58. There was significant difference in readiness for practice in terms of their religion and program of study. Conclusion: To facilitate the smooth transition from student to professional, a planned preparatory program may be useful at the course completion.</p> Dinesh Kumar Suganandam, Vinitha Ravindran, Vathsala Sadan, Ida Sweetlin Priyadarsini Copyright (c) 2022 Dinesh Kumar Suganandam, Vinitha Ravindran, Vathsala Sadan, Ida Sweetlin Priyadarsini Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Future Manpower Requirements in Public Healthcare of India and its Northeastern Region <p>Health-care workforce planning is crucial for active healthcare provision and to achieve an improvement in population health. One of the major challenges in the quest for achieving the goals of the Universal Health Coverage is the shortage of skilled health workers which is a matter of concern for health planners. The paper attempts to project the future requirement of allopathic physician practicing in public sector for India and Northeast India using the health information data from the Datanet India (Indiastat). The projection of physician was done using the average doctor to physician ratio for the year 2004–2017 and population projection was derived using the average exponential growth rate. Study found that with the current trend, India and Northeast are still far from meeting the healthcare needs of the population and the shortage of allopathic physician in public sectors will continue to persist in future. Under the current scenario, India will have require close to 1.6 million public sector allopathic doctors in 2030 to keep up with the WHO standard population to physician ratio. Northeast India will need 0.05 million to achieve the same standard. It could be expected that public health workforce in India and Northeast will remain insufficient in the future and this may have serious implication to the poor and vulnerable section of the population and therefore calls for a need to have a strong build-up and development in Indian health-care system.</p> Donald R. Mawkhlieng, Preeti Dhillon, L. Ladusingh Copyright (c) 2022 Donald R. Mawkhlieng, Preeti Dhillon, L. Ladusingh Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Power Training on Quality of Life in Chronic Stroke Survivors <p>Background: Power training is a concept where power can be best improved with the help of resistance exercise, that is, equivalent to 60% of 1RM. Along with this resistance, the exercise is to be done with maximum speed, that is, as fast as possible, which is equivalent to 33–60% of the maximum movement velocity without resistance. Power training is used for lower motor neuron lesion; but to work more on weakness for chronic stroke individuals and to improve their quality of life (QOL), power training is used for chronic stroke, that is, upper motor neuron lesion. Objectives: The objective was to assess the effect of power training along with conventional treatment protocol on QOL in chronic stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was carried out using convenient sampling technique during 3 months in Krishna Hospital. A total of 40 patients were subjected Group A (20 subjects) who received conventional treatment protocol and Group B (20 subjects) who underwent power training along with conventional treatment protocol. Protocol was conducted for 3 days per week (alternate days) for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-test results were assessed using Stroke-Specific QOL Scale and Modified Barthel’s Index as outcome measures. Results: Significant, very significant, and extremely significant correlations were observed for combination of power training and conventional treatment protocol when compared to conventional treatment alone. Conclusion: This study concluded that the combination of conventional treatment protocol and power training for chronic stroke survivors improved their QOL.</p> Prachiti A. Dhuru, Suraj B. Kanase Copyright (c) 2022 Prachiti A. Dhuru, Suraj B. Kanase Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy between “Spencer Technique” and “Muscle Energy Technique” in Treatment of “Adhesive Capsulitis” <p>Background: Adhesive capsulitis is a painful and disabling condition of unknown etiology, in which the shoulder capsule, the connective tissue surrounding the glenohumeral joint become inflamed and causes chronic pain with restriction. Although there are multiple ways to treat the disorder, there is a lack of evidence in indicating a specific technique to treat the disorder. In this study, we intend to check the efficacy of two different techniques in improving the range and function of the shoulder joint.<br>Methodology: Thirty subjects were randomly allocated to two different groups. One group was administered with muscle energy technique (MET) and the other with Spencer technique. The pain intensity and disability of shoulder joint is evaluated with shoulder pain disability index. For range of motion for shoulder flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation, Goniometry was used as an outcome measure.<br>Results: The results are tabulated in terms of mean, standard deviation, variance, t-test, and P-value. Student t-test shows that there were statistically significant values for groups (P &lt; 0.05). Variance test has been found to be significant at P &lt; 0.05, Spencer technique is found to be more effective compare to MET.<br>Conclusion: When applied to the patients, both MET and Spencer technique are found to be effective, in comparison using t-test, it is concluded that Spencer technique is more effective than MET.</p> Bhargab Bhattacharya, Ujwal Bhattacharya, Chatrajit Das, Urvashi Bhattacharya Copyright (c) 2022 Bhargab Bhattacharya, Ujwal Bhattacharya, Chatrajit Das, Urvashi Bhattacharya Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Osmotic Fragility of Normal and Ultrasound Irradiated Human Blood <p>Ultrasound is commonly employed in clinical practice as a part of physical therapy. The present paper reports the data on the effect of ultrasound on osmotic fragility of Human blood. Blood samples of volume 6 ml were obtained from healthy donors with their consent, each time an experiment was performed. To prevent the blood from coagulation, it was preserved in a heparin anticoagulant tube. The sample was then divided into two parts, that is, control sample and sample for irradiation. The human blood sample was irradiated to ultrasonic standing waves using an Ultrasonic interferometer of 3 MHz frequency for a duration of 1 h. Osmotic fragility of normal and ultrasonically irradiated human blood was determined. The study reveals variation in the osmotic fragility of ultrasonically irradiated human blood compared with that of a normal sample.</p> Mohd Abdul Saleem, Kaleem Ahmed Jaleeli Copyright (c) 2022 Mohd Abdul Saleem, Kaleem Ahmed Jaleeli Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Elemental and Phytochemical Variation among Healthy and Cracked Fruit of Punica granatum L. From Selected Areas of Kachchh Region, India <p>Punica granatum L. also called Pomegranate is an commercially important fruit plant belonging to Punicaceae family. Cultivation for pomegranate in Kachchh district is increasing drastically but cracking of pomegranate is one of the serious problem that badly affects the production and quality of pomegranate and also economic loss to farmers. For this purpose, the study was conducted to identify elemental and phytochemicals variation in leaves among healthy and cracked fruit. Identification of elements in leaves was carried using scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) technique while acetone extracts were used for phytochemical variation using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The result of the SEM-EDX analysis revealed that in cracked fruit deficiency of calcium, magnesium, cobalt, and tin and excess amount of chloride and potassium was found when compared with healthy fruit while lupeol acetate and sclareol phytochemical were observed in healthy fruit while cracked fruit showed its absence.</p> Pooja Mesurani, Vijaykumar R. Ram Copyright (c) 2022 Pooja Mesurani, Vijaykumar R. Ram Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical Investigations, and In Vitro Anti-arthritic Activity of Adiantum venustum D. Don <p>The present investigation deals with pharmacognostical, physicochemical, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extracts of Adiantum venustum D. Don. The macroscopic and microscopic characters, physical constant values, extractive values, ash values, color analysis, and fluorescence analysis were performed. The stems were 13–14 cm in size while leaves were 3–5 mm. Stems were straight with nodes while leaves were triangular and fan shaped. Transverse section of aerial parts of A. venustum showed epidermis consists of closely packed cells with single layer. No intercellular space was found. Endodermis is indistinct. On microscopic examination, the powder showed wavy epidermis, parenchyma cells, Phloem, fiber, trichome, brownish matter, and crystals. Physical constants performed were loss on drying, ash content, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash. Extractive values in chloroform and alcohol were determined. Fluorescence studies of the powder were carried in UV, UVB, and day light with various solvents. Phytochemical screening of successive extracts showed positive reactions for steroids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, phenols, and tannins. In vitro anti-arthritic activity was performed by the inhibition of protein denaturation method. The ethanolic extracts of aerial parts exhibited remarkable anti-arthritic action. The protein denaturation was also found to be maximum at 75.293 ± 0.735 and 79.956 ± 0.9 % at a dose of 500 μg/mL by protein denaturation egg albumin and bovine serum albumin method, respectively.</p> Vaishali Somani, Ashish Jain, Akhlesh Kumar Singhai Copyright (c) 2022 Vaishali Somani, Ashish Jain, Akhlesh Kumar Singhai Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Analysis to Determine the Availability and Accessibility of Safe Drinking Water and Proper Sanitation Facilities in Government Degree Colleges of Bandipora District in Kashmir Division <p>Aims and Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the availability and accessibility of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities among undergraduate colleges of Bandipora district of Kashmir. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in the Hassan Shah Khuehami Memorial Government degree college of Bandipora area and Government degree college of Sumbal area of Bandipora district in Kashmir, India. The study covered 404 Muslim girl’s participants who were drawn from their graduate 2nd and 3rd years. The information was collected by circulating the pre-tested structured questionnaire containing demographic profile and availability, and accessibility of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities in the colleges. Results: Analysis based on age revealed that more than half of participants belonged up to 20 years of age. Less than three-fourths study in the 3rd year and the remaining students were in the 2nd year. A little more than 50% of girls were from nuclear families as high as 80% were from rural backgrounds. The economic status informed that the monthly household income ranged from Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 30,000 and the majority of the parents had school education completed and accordingly employed on wage earnings. With regard to accessibility and availability of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities as high as 90% of the girls opined that they did not have girl-friendly washrooms and were overcrowded and unhygienic. More than three-fourths of the participants expressed that they do not have access to disposal facilities for used sanitary materials, neither incinerators nor any other proper disposal facilities and no space for washing the stained clothes, though more than 90% held that direct tap water for drinking is available. It is to be tested whether the direct tap water is safe without any contamination. The study suggested that safe drinking water and proper facilities for handling menstruation at the educational institutions are the mandatory basic needs, in which the management has to be doubly careful and provide such facilities. Conclusion: More number of girls considered lack of infrastructural facilities to be major hurdle in meeting their higher educational needs. Colleges lacked adequate availability of separate toilets for girls, with no proper sanitation facilities. Inadequate facilities of proper sanitation inside the girls toilets were reported to be a strong reason for girls drop-out.</p> Yasir Ashraf, S. Sampath Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Yasir Ashraf, S. Sampath Kumar Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of COVID-19 and Lockdown on Health and Livelihoods of Transgender Individuals in Hyderabad, Telangana <p>To combat the coronavirus disease which claimed lot of lives globally, India went into a complete lockdown starting March 24, 2020. This study examines the impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on one of the vulnerable groups of populations, that is, transgender people’s livelihoods, health-seeking behavior along with their perceived health-care barriers, and accessibility to health-care services. A cross-sectional descriptive study with mixed methods approach for qualitative data was done in Hyderabad city. Eighty transgender participants identified through snowball sampling method were subjected to structured interviews and 30 among them were chosen randomly and were also subjected to in-depth semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using MS Excel and thematic analysis. The COVID-19 lockdown has affected target group’s livelihoods and their health-seeking behavior. The denial of treatment by the doctors and unavailability of health services are hindering their accessibility to health care. Violence/harassment, discrimination, discourtesy, maltreatment, and verbal and physical abuse are major barriers for health-care utilization by transgender individuals. An inclusive policy needs to be put in place for vulnerable groups like transgenders.</p> Chinthapally Stella Grace, B R Shamanna Copyright (c) 2022 Chinthapally Stella Grace, B R Shamanna Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study on Sports Specific Personality among Male Physical Education Students of Uttar Pradesh <p>The present study was intended to compare the various sports specific personality (sociability, dominance, extroversion, conventionality, self-concept, mental toughness, and emotional stability) of physical education students of different universities (Agra University, Lucknow University, and Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith University, Varanasi) of Uttar Pradesh using sports personality specific test developed by Dr. Agya Jit Singh and H.S. Cheema (2010). Descriptive research design was used in this study. For the purpose of the present study, a total of 90 physical education students were selected through random sampling. The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA. Level of significant was fixed at 0.05. The results of the study indicates that there was a significant difference on extroversion and self-concept between different university’s physical education students, however, no significant difference was found on sociability, dominance, conventionality, mental toughness, and emotional-stability.</p> Vivit Kumar Yadav, Mukul Pant Copyright (c) 2022 Vivit Kumar Yadav, Mukul Pant Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Clinical Study of Nirgundi Taila and Jatyadi Taila Pratisarana in Parikartika W.S.R. to Fissure in Ano <p>Background: The Parikartika is a condition, in which there will be excruciating cutting type of pain all around Guda, Bastishiras, and Nabhi. It mainly involves Vata Dosha vitiation. It can be correlated with Fissure in ano which is a longitudinal split in the anoderm of the distal anal canal which extends from anal verge proximally toward, but not beyond, the dentate line. Both Nirgundi Taila and Jatyadi Taila have Vatashamak property. Materials and Methods: In this study, total 40 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were included and were randomly divided into two groups, 20 patients in each group. Group A was advised to use Nirgundi Taila for Pratisarana and Group B was advised to use Jatyadi Taila for Pratisarana. Results: The result shows statistically significant improvement in both groups suggesting both Nirgundi Taila and Jatyadi Taila which are effective in Parikartika. However, overall statistical analysis shows that percentage of improvement in Group A (Nirgundi Taila) was more than Group B (Jatyadi Taila); hence, we can say that Group A (Nirgundi Taila) is more effective as compared to Group B (Jatyadi Taila) in Parikartika. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is significant effect of Nirgundi Taila Pratisarana in Parikartika (Fissure in Ano) cases.</p> Awari Vishakha Vitthalrao, V. Kadam Rahul Copyright (c) 2022 Awari Vishakha Vitthalrao, V. Kadam Rahul Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Clinicodemographic Profile of Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reactions in Indian Perspective <p>Background: Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are an important group of disorders which pose considerable amount of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The incidence of CADRs is estimated to be 1–2% in the general population. Newer insights have been developing in the field of factors affecting CADRs and the need for studies in the Indian population regarding the newer trends in cutaneous adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A prospective and observational study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology and Collaboration with Department of Dermatology in MGM Medical College and LSK Hospital. All cases of suspected CADRs in patients with systemically administered drugs were actively screen by a senior dermatologist. Causality assessment was done by a Pharmacologist using WHO UMC scale. Only those cases where the causality was certain probable/likely were recorded. Results: This sampling comprised of 77 CADRs over a period of 1 year from June 2012 to May 2013. The clinical pattern and spectrum of CADRs were studied in 77 subjects. A wide clinical spectrum of CADRs ranging fixed drug eruptions to serious Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS) was observed. The predominant pattern of reactions observed was fixed drug eruptions FDE (35.1%) followed by acneiform eruptions (23.4%), erythema multiforme (9.1%), and phototoxic drug reactions (7.8%). The antimicrobials causing FDE were macrolides, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. Among the NSAIDs causing FDE, most were due to diclofenac (70%). CADRs were seen most commonly in the 31–40 (26%) years age group followed by 11–20 (24.7%) years and 41–50 (19.5%) years with mean age 32.09 years. Only 5.2% patients were more than 60 years, oldest being 67 years. Antimicrobials were the most common drug group incriminated in 34% patients followed by NSAIDs in 29% cases and steroids in 25% cases. Among NSAIDs, maximum number of CADRs were caused by ibuprofen (40.9%) followed by diclofenac (36.4%), paracetamol (9%), aceclofenac (9%), and nimesulide (4.5%). Serious reactions were infrequent. Conclusion: Most of the reactions were mild (53%) to moderate (42%) requiring no major medical intervention. However, a larger and multi-centric study needs to be conducted across the state to obtain more information about CADRs among the state population.</p> Buddhadev Panja, Satarupa Mukherjee, Debjani Goswami, Bibhuti Bhushan, Sipra Bhattacharjee, Sukanta Sen Copyright (c) 2022 Buddhadev Panja, Satarupa Mukherjee, Debjani Goswami, Bibhuti Bhushan, Sipra Bhattacharjee, Sukanta Sen Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Development and Validation of Attitudes and Concerns toward COVID-19 Vaccination Scale <p>Background: COVID-19 vaccines are one of the fastest developed vaccines to date. People have different views and opinions about it. A positive attitude can strengthen the vaccination program, whereas a negative attitude will be an obstacle for a healthy and safe nation. This study aimed at developing and validating the Attitudes and Concerns toward the COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: Initial draft of 48 items was developed based on literature review and interview of experts. After content validation with four experts and semantic validation with 20 respondents, 32 items were retained and administered to 607 Indian adults aged 18–60 years. Results: Data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS Version-23 with AMOS. Exploratory factor analysis supported the two-factor structure for the attitude toward COVID-19 vaccination and three factors structure for the concern domain. Cronbach alpha for “Vaccine Acceptance” and “Vaccine Hesitance” was.825 and.721. The reliability of religious concerns (α = 0.785), social concerns (α = 0.714), and health concern (α = 0.699) subscales was acceptable. The confirmatory factor analysis results verified two-factor model of attitude and three-factor model of concerns as the model indices were close to 1; RMSEA was 0.000 and PCLOSE values were 0.861 and 0.927, respectively, for Parts I and II. Conclusion: This is 12-item scale that measures vaccine acceptance, vaccine hesitance, religious concerns, social concerns, and health concerns related to COVID-19 vaccination.</p> Ezaz Shaikh, Petare Pratika Copyright (c) 2022 Ezaz Shaikh, Petare Pratika Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Role of Social Connectedness and Health Anxiety in Predicting Psychological Well-being <p>Background: Due to COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing was taken as one of the precautionary measure in India. Uncertainty about signs and symptoms, modes of transmission, and lack of definite treatment of COVID-19 have put the mental health of people in India at risk. This study was carried out to explore the role of connectedness, affiliation, and companionship factors of social connectedness and health anxiety in predicting psychological well-being and its components. Method: This study was carried out on 317 Indian adults recruited through convenience sampling method during July 2020 to November 2020. Hypotheses were tested using linear regression methods. Results: Companionship predicted 1.9% and 7.7% of variance in autonomy and environmental mastery, respectively. Affiliation predicted 6.7% variance in personal growth. Connectedness and companionship explained 26.8% variance of positive relationships with others and 16.1% of self-acceptance. Health anxiety predicted 6.3%, 6.8, 6.7%, 8.3%, and 9% variance of autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationship with others, and self-acceptance, respectively. Conclusion: “Connectedness” and “companionship” were the significant predictors of “positive relationships with others” and “self-acceptance.” “Companionship” predicted “autonomy” and “environmental mastery,” whereas “personal growth” was predicted by “affiliation.” Health anxiety predicted all domains of psychological well-being except purpose of life.</p> Ezaz Shaikh, Petare Pratika Copyright (c) 2022 Ezaz Shaikh, Petare Pratika Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity using Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference among 11–14-Year-old Children in Puducherry <p>Background: Obesity in children has become more common in recent years around the world. It is estimated that India will have 17 million obese children by 2025. Increased consumption of high-calorie meals deficient in vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients, combined with decreased physical activity, is factors contributing to rising childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Material and Methods: The study was a school based cross-sectional study conducted among 1386 students aged 11–14 years from four Private Urban schools of Puducherry. This was measured using WHO BMI-for-age-2007 (5–19 years) charts for boys and girls and for waist circumference using an inch tape with a cut off value at 71 cms. Results: The findings reveal that among 1386 children aged 11–14 years the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the study participants was 20.2% and 7.14%, respectively. In the overweight category, girls were overweight (52.5%) when compared to the boys (47.5%) and in the obese category, boys were (51.5%) and girls were (48.4%). The mean waist circumference of students in the overweight category was 76.61 with a standard deviation of 4.32 and in the obese category was 78.7 with a standard deviation of 4.14. A significant association was found between gender and age with the waist circumference at P &lt; 0.001. Conclusion: The present study findings imply that overweight and obesity are a growing concern in our country and there is an urgent need to create awareness among all stakeholders.</p> Sumathy Ponnambalam Copyright (c) 2022 Sumathy Ponnambalam Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Lactose Intolerance and Effect of Supplementing Lactose Hydrolyzed Milk among Elderly Population of Urban Vadodara <p>Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose which may lead to gastrointestinal symptoms. These symptoms hinder nutrient absorption and cause discomfort. The objective of the study was to determine lactose intolerance and determine the effect of lactose hydrolyzed milk supplementation to lactose intolerants among geriatric population. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed to assess gastrointestinal symptoms post-consumption of various foods. Hydrogen breath analyser test (HBT) was conducted to determine lactose intolerance and further divided into mild, moderate, and severe categories of lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerants are supplemented with lactose hydrolyzed milk (LHM) for 6 weeks. The highest gastrointestinal symptoms were observed in 37.4% of the subjects’ post-milk and milk products consumption whereas cereal products exhibited the least (2.73%). HBT revealed that 55.5% of the subjects were lactose intolerant. A significant improvement (P &lt; 0.05) in energy, protein, calcium, and fat intakes was observed post-supplementation by 3%, 3.30%, 43.62%, and 4.19%, respectively. There was an increase in normal category body weight by 6.7% post-LHM supplementation. No significant changes (P &lt; 0.05) were observed in quality of life before and after intervention. Conclusion: Lactose-intolerance was 55.5% among the studied geriatric population. All the elderlies (100%) were able to tolerate LHM without experiencing any gastrointestinal disturbances for 45 days.</p> Mini Sheth, Debanjana Bhattacharyya Copyright (c) 2022 Mini Sheth, Debanjana Bhattacharyya Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Barefoot Training Survey: Novel Experiences of Barefoot Training on Habitually Shod Runners <p>Running is the most popular means of physical activity among people all over the world. Shoe wear design has evolved over a period of time, however, running-related injuries continue to surge. Barefoot form of running has been advocated as a possible training approach to reap the benefits of running in the era of modern shoes. Limited evidence of reduction in torques and forces on the lower extremities is available for barefoot running, however, how far this corresponds to injuries is yet to be studied. The aim of this survey was to examine factors related to performance and injury in runners who have tried barefoot training with an emphasis on including a habituation phase to accustom to barefoot running. A 10-question survey regarding the experiences of runners (sprinters and marathoners) athletes who participated in barefoot training program was prepared and communicated electronically through email. All participants were state and national level athletes and habitually trained in shoe before participating in the barefoot training. A total of six participants who took part in the training were given the survey questionnaire. About 60% of respondents believed barefoot training will help to heal from repetitive injuries widely supported by media in form of blogs, books, and scientific papers in this area. About 17% of these respondents sought suggestions from their coaches, physical therapists, and trainer to pursue barefoot training. Initially, participants were apprehensive of participating into barefoot training (67%). Participants preferred running on grass and treadmill to prevent from injury. All participants agreed on implications of barefoot training to achieve sports-specific performance improvement in running performance. No injuries were reported after the completion of barefoot training with no new injuries being reported. The previous studies have reported biomechanical changes caused by barefoot training with a hypothetical prediction of reducing injury risk. The survey showed that barefoot training was perceived to be positive experience for all the runners with no injuries being reported at the end of the training.</p> Zafar Azeem, Priyanshu Rathod, Tushar Palekar, Abha Khisty Copyright (c) 2022 Zafar Azeem, Priyanshu Rathod, Tushar Palekar, Abha Khisty Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Novel Coixol-Based Derivatives as the Potential Anti-diabetic Agents Through Molecular Docking Studies <p>Objective: The objective of this study was to design and identify the novel promising anti-diabetic agents based on the naturally existing potent insulin secretagogue coixol that can improve the potency overcome the adverse effects of existing medicines. Methods: The Auto Dock Vina (ADT) 1.5.6 and PyMOL software were used for molecular docking and visualization purposes. The molecular structures were drawn in Chem Draw 16.0 and by the help of Chem Bio draw three dimensions, all structures were energy minimized by MM2 method and converted to PDB extension file which is readable at the ADT interface. Result: Total 254 designed molecules from each series 1–4 were checked for binding score with the receptor 5yw7. Out of that total 12 molecules from each series were selected on the basis of their binding affinity in each series. Among these coixol (Natural product), DP322, DP330, and DP422 were studied in-depth. Conclusion: Coixol-based derivatives which scored best binding affinity such as DP332, DP330, and DP422 were shown promising result on the interaction with the K+ ATP sensitive Potassium channel protein (5yw7). The entire study suggests that these novel coixol-based derived molecules could be a promising lead for the further discovery and investigation of insulin sensitizing agents for the treatment of diabetes.</p> Deepshikha Patle, Paranjeet Kaur, Navneet Khurana Copyright (c) 2022 Deepshikha Patle, Paranjeet Kaur, Navneet Khurana Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Review on Basti – An Ardha Chikitsa <p>Background: In Ayurveda, Chikitsa does not mean simply the relief from ailment or absence of symptoms; it is bringing back the normalcy specific to that person. The word Shodhana means cleansing and purifying. Basti holds a distinct position in contrast to other Panchakarma measures due to its wide spectrum and competent benefits. Observation: Basti Karma controls Vata at its Moolasthana Pakwashaya, and thus, all metabolic processes under the control of Vata are automatically regulated as, if the root of the diseased tree is destroyed; its branches, leaves, and flowers are automatically destroyed. Veerya of the Basti Dravyas transmitted all over the body. It sucks out Doshas from head to toe as, the sun though miles away with its rays, sucks the water from the plants on the earth. No other Chikitsa is as capable as Basti to tolerate and regulate the force of Vata. All these actions of Basti can be well explained on the basis of known physiological and pharmacological actions. Thus, Basti has promotive, curative, preventive, and rejuvenative effect. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Basti is a highly complex, sophisticated, and systemic therapy having a wider range of therapeutic actions and indications. It has been considered as the prime treatment modality of Vata Dosha. Innumerable Basti can be formulated using various drugs in different proportions for various diseases and for different patients.</p> Deepa Chaturvedi, Mamata Nakade Copyright (c) 2022 Deepa Chaturvedi, Mamata Nakade Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Platelet-rich Fibrin – A Wonder Material for Periodontal Regeneration – A Clinical Case Series <p>The discovery of platelet-rich fibrin has enhanced the possibility of treating periodontal defects with significantly positive results in terms of bone defect fill, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level, apart from aiding in healing of wounds in other surgical procedures. This case series describes the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as a membrane along with allografts, in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects, and the success of this treatment in eliminating factors such as deep periodontal pockets. The use of PRF in periodontal surgical procedures has been amply supported by various authors in the literature. Hence, it can be concluded from this case series that PRF can be used as an autologous alternative to the artificial materials for specifically treat intrabony periodontal defects with equal or better clinical outcomes.</p> Nidhi Saripalli, Rinisha Sinha, Pramod Waghmare, Aishwarya Sabharwal Copyright (c) 2022 Nidhi Saripalli, Rinisha Sinha, Pramod Waghmare, Aishwarya Sabharwal Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Assessment of Nutritional Awareness among the Migratory Tribal Pregnant Women of Punjab <p>Nutritional deficiency in women is of particular concern because they may get pregnant and face the added nutritional, physical, and emotional demands of pregnancy, childbirth, and nursing. The objective of the study is to assess the nutritional awareness among the migratory tribal pregnant women of Punjab. The interview method was used to investigate the nutritional awareness of tribal pregnant women. Three hundred pregnant women were selected as sample population from four different tribal groups of Punjab. Structured questionnaire was used as a tool. The majority of the respondents 272 (90.67%) did not have knowledge about the nutritional requirement of the pregnant women, government policies of Iron, and Vitamin A supplementation for pregnant women for combating anemia, iron Vitamin-A-rich rich food, addition of citrus fruits in their diet, the importance of germinated food grains, folic acid-rich foods, nutritional deficiency disease during pregnancy, iodine deficiency during pregnancy, consumption of Iron and Folic acid Supplements in their diet, quantity of food intake during pregnancy, harmful effects of Under Nutrition, source of carbohydrates, protein, iron, vitamin and minerals, importance of nutrition in fetus growth, weight gain during pregnancy, water intake during pregnancy, absorption of Calcium and Iron in the body, the need of Vitamin-C in the body, and need of Zinc in the body.</p> Vandana Miglani, Anamika Gautum Copyright (c) 2022 Vandana Miglani, Anamika Gautum Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Oral rehydration Salt Citrate Drink on Selected Physiological Variables of Endurance Athlete <p>Introduction: Endurance is the ability to do something for long period of time without fatigue. Proper body electrolyte balance is most important during any endurance activities. Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to analyze Oral Rehydration Salt Citrate (ORS) drink on physiological variables of endurance athlete. Methodology: Ten females aged between 18 and 25 years athletes from LNIPE, Gwalior were selected for this study. Physiological variables were body weight, total body water (TBW), total body potassium (TBK), plasma fluid, and mineral and performance was taken as another variable. Data Analysis: It was found that intake of ORS before and during the endurance activity was better than the plain water or nothing. Result: It also found that TBW, minerals, plasma fluid, and TBK reduction were less after intake of ORS and result of less electrolyte reduction leads to better performance.</p> Kumari Sushma, Padmakar Padmakar Copyright (c) 2022 Kumari Sushma, Padmakar Padmakar Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Analgesic Potential of Homeopathic Formulation of Tincture Apis <p>Apis is a homeopathic formulation developed from the venom of Apis mellifera. Apis is extensively used to treat various skin disorders, pleurisy, and peritonitis. The Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 firmly stated the high prominence of pain and pain-related diseases are the leading cause of disability and disease burden globally. The current investigation was aimed to explore the analgesic effect of homeopathic formulation tincture Apis using formalin induced flinching, acetic acid induced writhing and Eddy’s hot plate test. Tincture Apis pretreatment significantly reduced the number of flinching’s in both neurogenic and inflammatory phase in formalin test. Moreover, in Acetic acid and Eddy’s hot plate test, tincture Apis pre-treatment significantly reduced the acetic acid induced writhing’s and increased the paw licking latency, respectively. The effect of Apis was prominent to that observed with standard diclofenac in formalin and acetic acid test. Amino acid analysis revealed that tincture Apis contains 14 amino acids including seven essential amino acids. Furthermore, morphological studies revealed that administration of 10 times concentrated tincture Apis had no visible changes in acute toxicity screening such as change in skin color, salivation, convulsions, tremors, diarrhea, and paralysis or mortality in 14 day study. However, abnormal movement of body and eye were observed in the first 4 h. Overall outcome of present study revealed that tincture Apis has an excellent analgesic potential, which might be linked to the presence of essential amino acids including leucine, histidine, and GABA in tincture Apis.</p> Pooja Kashyap, Lovedeep Singh, Harpreet Kaur, Naveneet Kaur, Navjot Kaur, Rajbir Bhatti Copyright (c) 2022 Pooja Kashyap, Lovedeep Singh, Harpreet Kaur, Naveneet Kaur, Navjot Kaur, Rajbir Bhatti Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Teneligliptin, and Teneligliptin Combined with Gabapentin on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathy in Albino Mice <p>Diabetic neuropathy is a nerve disorder manifested by different faceted condition affecting up to half of individuals with persistent diabetes. Symptoms associated with this disease such as nerve palsy, painful polyneuropathy, thoracoabdominal neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, diabetic amyotrophy, mononeuropathy multiplex, caused by motor, sensory, and autonomic nerve dysfunction which affects peripheral nervous system, gastrointestinal, pain receptors, urogenital, and cardiovascular system. In this study, type 2 diabetes was induced with alloxan in albino mice. After induction, drug treatment was initiated on the day 15, with different regimen on different group of mice that is teneligliptin, sitagliptin, combination of teneligliptin, and gabapentin. After investigation on day 21, 28, 35, and 42 found significantly improved glycemic control, paw jumping response, and grip strength (P &lt; 0.001). Mice treated with different regimen on day 21, 28, 35, and 42 were observed significant increase in blood protein (P &lt; 0.001). Alloxan caused marked nerve cell degeneration, teneligliptin and sitagliptin showed tissue regeneration and neutral effect on body weight. In the conclusion, treatment with teneligliptin and teneligliptin combined with gabapentin results an increase in pain sensitivity, grip strength, neural protection, and reverses the alteration of biochemical parameters but neutral effect on body weight in alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic mice.</p> Ranjeet Kumar, Ashish Kumar Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Ranjeet Kumar, Ashish Kumar Sharma Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Arthroscopy and Arthrocentesis in the Management of Internal Derangement in TMJ Disorders: A Systematic Review <p>The aim of the systematic review is to shed some light on comparison of Arthroscopy and arthrocentesis in the management of internal derangement in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted with no date or language constraints. Human research, such as randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and retrospective studies comparing arthrocentesis and arthroscopy in the treatment of internal derangements in TMJ disorders, was included in this study. After considering the exclusion and inclusion criteria, seven studies were being included in the systematic review. Because all trials employed the same scale, the weighted mean difference (WMD) was used to compute the Maximum inter-incisal opening (MIO) (in millimeters) and pain in the continuous data (by visual analog scale). The improvement in MIO following arthroscopy was greater than that following arthrocentesis. The difference in pain reduction between arthroscopy and arthrocentesis patients was statistically significant (fixed: WMD = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.54–0.30; P = 0.00001). When compared to arthrocentesis, arthroscopy lysis and lavage were shown to be more effective in improving MIO and lowering pain.</p> Prajesh Dubey, Apoorva Mowar, Shelly Sharma, Sahil Vashisht, Nitish Gupta, Shreya Panwar Copyright (c) 2022 Prajesh Dubey, Apoorva Mowar, Shelly Sharma, Sahil Vashisht, Nitish Gupta, Shreya Panwar Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Potential Impact and Perspective of Shift Work on Fitness of Security Guards: A Review <p>At present, almost all the institutions either government or private sector require security guards. Sometimes, they need to be work in adverse conditions such as extreme hot, cold, pollutions, narrow workplaces, steady body position, unbalanced prolonged working hours, shift work, underpaid, and uncertainty. These guards provide services in fixed and rotatory shift work system based on the organization requirement or needs. This occupation involves a stress on physical and mental health which directly affects the fitness as of allied with vocal and physical aggression. It affects social and family life, sleep disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, metabolic system disorders, endothelial dysfunction, musculoskeletal disorders, circadian rhythms, diabetes, accident possibility, etc. Few of the symptoms are temporary or associated to particular stage of time, but most of the stress affects for longer period or even for life. Hence, these issues should be taken seriously and need to be plan the shift schedules and their working conditions as both shift work and security guards are equally demanding and important.</p> Shivangi Singh, U. V. Kiran, Padmini Pandey Copyright (c) 2022 Shivangi Singh, U. V. Kiran, Padmini Pandey Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of 8 Weeks of Yogic Practice on Type-II Diabetes Mellitus and Hemoglobin among 45–55 Age Groups <p>The purpose of the study was to access the effect of 8 weeks of yogic practice on Type-II diabetes mellitus and hemoglobin among 45–55 age groups. The present study is undertaken among 10 urban peoples, for example, five experimental groups and five control groups. They were selected randomly from rural area of Assam who recently use to practice yoga asanas regularly during the morning time for 1.30 h. A randomized single-group design was adopted in this study. The volunteers were made aware of testing and training procedure. For the collection of the data, blood glucose was measured using (Accu-Chek active blood glucose meter) and hemoglobin level was measured using (StatStrip hemoglobin and hematocrit meter system). To evaluate the hypothesis of the study, descriptive statistics such as mean, SD, and compare mean such as paired “t”-test were applied and were tested at 0.05 level of significant. The statistical findings revealed that there was a significant difference in blood glucose and hemoglobin of the subjects. The blood glucose level of the experimental group P value and t value was 0.001 and 2.7764 and the control group P value and t value was 0.969. Hemoglobin level of the experimental group P value and t value was 0.002 and 2.7764 and the control group P value and t value was 0.883, respectively. On the basis of the statistical result, it was concluded that there was a significant effect of 8 weeks of training on blood glucose and hemoglobin among the age group of 45–55 years.</p> Sujay Bisht, Phurailatpam Laxmikumari Devi Copyright (c) 2022 Sujay Bisht, Phurailatpam Laxmikumari Devi Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Laser-assisted Management for Orthodontic Treatment-induced Gingival Enlargement: A Case Series <p>Different ways can be used to remove tissue during gingivectomy and generate a good gingival margin; the most common is the traditional gingivectomy, which is performed with a scalpel; however, laser technology is becoming more commonly available and can be utilized to perform procedures. Hence, this case series emphasize the importance of laser treatment in cases of gingival overgrowth seen due to ongoing orthodontic treatment. In this case series, three clinical reports are discussed in detail, comparing the efficiency of scalpel and diode laser therapy for treating gingival overgrowth and patient perception of the need of taking pain killer after the surgery and the presence of discomfort during eating and speech. Based on them, it can be concluded that diode laser gingivectomy can be a valuable tool for achieving faster and greater improvements in gingival health, implying its usefulness for orthodontic patients with gingival overgrowth, particularly when oral hygiene is insufficient to achieve normal healthy gums. For many years, scalpels were been used in performing gingivectomy and there is a dilemma whether to use scalpel or laser for gingivectomy procedures. The dilemma of the clinician was resolved confirming that laser therapy offers many more advantages for the gingivectomy procedure along with added benefits of lasers to reduce patient discomfort and accelerate healing.</p> Aishwarya Sabharwal, Sinha Rinisha, Saripalli Nidhi, Chaudhari Amit, Chaudhari Amit Copyright (c) 2022 Aishwarya Sabharwal, Sinha Rinisha, Saripalli Nidhi, Chaudhari Amit, Chaudhari Amit Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Status of Mental Health among Male and Female Senior Secondary Level Students of Uttarakhand State <p>Mental health of the student has been a big concern for parents in the academic world in recent times. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic made huge contributions in it by forcing the school to adopt online teaching and subsequently confining the young generation to their homes and endless hours of screen time. Although online teaching has made academic activities possible at least during this pandemic situation, it has also caused significant stress on the mental health of school children. The present study has been conducted to find out the status of mental health among male and female senior secondary level students of Uttarakhand state. Total of four hundred (400) Senior secondary level Male and female students studying in different schools and Boards of Uttarakhand State were selected as subjects by using random sampling method. The subjects were Aged between 14-19 years and were studying in 9th-12th classes at different schools in Uttarakhand state. Mental Health Status was assessed using the Mental Health Scale developed by Dr. Shushma Talesara and Dr. Akhtar Banao [2017]. The collected data were analysed using mean, standard deviation, and independent t-test. The level of significance was fixed at 0.05. The result revealed that there was a significant difference in the total mental health status between male and female students. Female students were better on mental health status than male students. In subcategories of mental health status, there was a significant difference found for home-related causes, whereas, in the other two subcategories, there was no significant difference between male and female students of Uttarakhand state.</p> Azhar Hussain Ansari, Hiralal Yadav, Mukul Pant Copyright (c) 2022 Azhar Hussain Ansari, Hiralal Yadav, Mukul Pant Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Dexmedetomidine:” Role in Pediatric Dentistry <p>A number of sedative agents have been in use in pediatric dentistry to gain a child’s cooperation with dental treatment. Dexmedetomidine is one such agent that was introduced as a sedative in the dental practice in 2005 due to a more stable respiratory drive and higher success rates in allowing pediatric dentists to carry out non-painful dental examinations and procedures compared to other sedatives such as chloral hydrate and midazolam. The most distinguishing feature of this sedative is its ability to produce a form of sedation that mimics natural sleep. The high safety margin of dexmedetomidine and its satisfactory sedative action makes it important for us to review its potential applications in pediatric dentistry.</p> Aayushi Sangal, Mousumi Goswami, Tanu Nangia, Shumayla Khan, Shivangani, Shivya Tuli Copyright (c) 2022 Aayushi Sangal, Mousumi Goswami, Tanu Nangia, Shumayla Khan, Shivangani, Shivya Tuli Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Analytical Method Development and Validation Protocol for Antiepileptic Agent – Rufinamide <p>This study developed and validated a new, sensitive, appropriate, clear, accurate, and robust reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for determining Rufinamide in bulk medication and tablet formulation. The separation was performed using an HPLC method with a UV detector and Openlab EZ chrome workstation programme, Kromasil C18, 250 mm X 4.6mm ID, 5 μm column, Methanol: 0.025% TFAA (60:40%V/V) was pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected at 212 nm. The new RP-HPLC method resulted in a 3.22minute retention time for Rufinamide, which was optimized by trial and error. Over a concentration range of 0.5-7.5 μg/mL, the linearity of the established method was confirmed with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.99994. The precision of the approach was determined to have a percentage RSD of less than 2.0 percent. The % recoveries were found to be within the acceptable range. The LOD and LOQ were determined to be 0.10 ug/mL and 0.31 ug/mL, respectively. The developed and validated RP-HPLC system takes less time and can be used in the industry for routine quality control/analysis of bulk drug and marketed Rufinamide products.</p> Gayatri Kakad, Sandhya L. Borse, Atul R. Bendale, Laxmikant B. Borse, Vaishali D. Naphade, Anil G. Jadhav Copyright (c) 2022 Gayatri Kakad, Sandhya L. Borse, Atul R. Bendale, Laxmikant B. Borse, Vaishali D. Naphade, Anil G. Jadhav Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation Development and Release Profile of Levomilnacipran Extended Release Capsules using Principles of Quality by Design <p>The study’s goal was to use Quality By Design (QbD) principles to design an Extended Release dosage form of levomilnacipran and evaluate its in vitro release profile. Doses of levomilnacipran extended release capsules (LERC) ranging from 20 mg to 120 mg. QbD was employed in this work to design LERC capsule formulation and production, which ensures LERC safety and efficacy. To create the LERC, wurster coating was applied to non-pariel seeds, which were then filled with capsules. To provide prolonged absorption, a polymer derived from ethylcellulose was chosen. Extensive release capsules are made up of four main components: (1) Drug layering, (2) extended release coating, (3) lubricant application, and finally (4) capsule filling. Results revealed that there was no significant difference in release profile LERC in different doses; however, the highest release of drug was seen at 120 mg, that is, 93%. The present formulation may be used as an effective treatment therapy against major depressive disorder.</p> Rajnish Kumar Singh, Naveen Kumar Choudhary, Ankit Anand Kharia Copyright (c) 2022 Rajnish Kumar Singh, Naveen Kumar Choudhary, Ankit Anand Kharia Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000