Metallic Nanoparticles as Antimicrobials and Radiosensitizers: A Review
Keywords:Antimicrobial activity, Clinical applications, Metallic-nanoparticles, Radiosensitizers, Radiotherapy
Nanoparticles have shown unique physical and chemical properties that have opened new era for chemotherapy, cancer therapy, and radiotherapy. As an improved technology for targeting tumors, it is suggested that nanoparticles can become clinically useful for radio sensitization and as an antimicrobials can be utilized in topical formulations such as ointments, gels, and creams. There are different types of nanoparticles involved in the treatment of cancer radiotherapy and tumor selective radiosensitizer which have been classified into different groups. One of the widest applications of nanoparticles is assigned to noble metal nanoparticles (MNPs) or metal-based radiosensitizers. MNPs are the entities of pure metals smaller than the scale of microns, that is, between 1 and 100 nm in size. These include gold, silver, zinc, platinum, iron, gadolinium, cerium, titanium, tantalum, Bismuth, Hafnium, and copper and their oxides, sulfides, phosphates, and chlorides. MNPs due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics such as large surface energy, larger surface-area-to-volume ratio, quantum confinement, and plasmon excitation have emerged as a powerful tool for bioimaging and diagnostic of cancer and other clinical applications. Therefore, this paper discusses the wider applications of metal-based nanoparticles in enhancing radiosensitivity in debt. Improving mechanistic approach and understanding in nanoparticles, the outcome of this study will be of enormous benefit in radiotherapy.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Sujata Sharma, Shagun Sharma, Shweta Vashist, Gurveen Kaur, Saahil Arora, Suchet
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